(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Indians In The War"

o. a: Xoa//f 



INDIANS 

IN THE WAR 



ULIAN H. STEWARD 




FONDREN LIBRARY ' 
BURIAL OF A BRAVE Southern Methodist University 

DALLAS'. TEXAS 7S222 



1945 



1941-1945 



IN GRATEFUL MEMORY 
OF 

THOSE WHO DIED 
IN THE SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTRY. 
THEY STAND IN THE UNBROKEN LINE 
OF PATRIOTS WHO HAVE DARED TO DIE 
THAT FREEDOM MIGHT LIVE, AND GROW, 
AND INCREASE ITS BLESSINGS. 

FREEDOM LIVES, 
AND THROUGH IT THEY LIVE- 
IN A WAY THAT HUMBLES 
THE UNDERTAKINGS OF MOST MEN. 



INDIANS IN THE WAR 

Honor for Indian Heroism 1 

Awards for Valor (Lists) 9 

Ceremonial Dances in the Pacific by Ernie Py/e 12 

A Choctaw Leads the Guerrillas 14 

An Empty Saddle 15 

We Honor These Dead (Lists) 16 

Navajo Code Talkers by MT/Sgt. Murrey Marder 25 

Indians Fought on Iwo Jima j 28 

Wounded in Action (Lists) 30 

Indians Work for the Navy by Lt. Frederick W. Sleight 42 

To the Indian Veteran 44 

Indian Women Work for Victory 49 

Prisoners of War Released 50 

A Family of Braves 51 

Indian Service Employees in the War 53 

The material in this pamphlet was collected for the 1945 Memorial 
Number of Indians at Work, before the magazine was discontinued because 
of the paper shortage. Many devoted workers spent much time and effort 
to get these stories, and the photographs which accompany the lists were 
loaned by the families of the boys whose names will be found here. We wish 
to express our gratitude to all of those who made this record possible. 

The casualty lists and the lists of awards and decorations continue 
those begun in Indians at Work for May-June 1943 and carried on in the 
November-December 1943, May-June 1944, and September-October 1944 
issues. They are not complete, and it is hoped that when the peace has come, 
the whole story of the Indian contribution to the victory may be gathered 
up into one volume. 

Awards of the Purple Heart have not been indicated here because every 
soldier wounded in action agoinst the enemy is entitled to the decoration, and 
the award should be taken for granted. 

NOVEMBER 1945 

United States Department of the Interior — Office of Indian Affairs 
Chicago 54, Illinois ^oNDRtN LIBRARY 

Hoikell Printing Department ' Methodist University 

2-15-44—15.000 , c o-v> 

DALLAS. TEXAS 75222 . ^ 



HONOR FOR INDIAN HEROISM 



The war hos ended in victor/ for the United 
Nations, and after a troubled period of read- 
justment and reorganization, peace will come 
at last. The story of the Indians' contribution 
to the winning of the war has been told only in 
part; and new material will be coming in for 
many months. As one of the Sioux boys says, 
"As a rule nowadays the fellows don't go in for 
heroics." But already the Indian record is im- 
pressive.. In the spring of 1945, there were 
21 ,767 Indians in the Army, 1 ,9 1 in the Navy, 
121 in the Coast Guard, and 723 in the Ma- 
rines. These figures do not include officers, 
for whom no statistics are available. Several 
hundred Indian women are in the various 
branches of the services. The Standing Rock 
Agency, North Dakota, estimates that at least 
fifty girls from that jurisdiction are in uniform. 

The Office of Indian Affairs has recorded 7 1 
awards of the Air Medal, 51 of the Silver Star, 
47 of the Bronze Star Medal, 34 of the Dis- 
tinguished Flying Cross, and two of the Con- 
gressional Medal of Honor. There are un- 
doubtedly many more which have not been re- 
ported. Many of these ribbons are decorated 
with oak leaf clusters awarded in lieu of addi- 
tional medals. It is not unusugl to see an 
Air Medal with nine oak leaf clusters, or twelve, 
or even fourteen. 

The casualty lists are long. They come from 
theatres of war all over the world. There were 
many Indians in the prison camps of the Philip- 
pines after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor, 
and later there were many more on two Jima 
and Okinawa. There were Indians in the 45th 
Division in Sicily and Italy. They were at Anzio, 
and they took part in the invasion on D-Day in 
Normandy. A Ute Indian, LeRoy Hamlin, was 
with a small troop which made the first con- 
tact with the Russians across the Elbe on April 
25. Another Ute, Harvey Natchees, was the 
first American soldier to ride into the center of 




Berlin. Pfc. Ira Hayes, Pima, of the Marines, 
was one of the six men who raised the flag 
on the summit of Mt. Suribachi. Once in a 
while, an Indian diving into a foxhole when 
shells began to burst, would find himself face 
to face with another member of his race, and 
they would start talking about Indian problems 
as they waited for the enemy fire to cease. 
When there was only one Indian in an outfit, 
he was inevitably called Chief, which amused 
him and perhaps pleased him a little. 

The Indian people at home have matched 
the record of their fighting men. More than 
forty thousand left the reservations during 
each of the war years to take jobs in ordnance 
depots, in aircraft factories, on the railroads, 
and in other war industries. The older men, 
the women, and the children, who stayed at 
home, increased their production of food in 
spite of the lack of help. The Indians invested 
more than $17,000,000 of restricted funds in 
war bonds, and their individual purchases pro- 
bably amount to twice that sum. They sub- 
scribed liberally to the Red Cross and to the 
Army and Navy Relief societies. The mothers of 
the soldiers organized War Mothers clubs in 
their communities, and every soldier received 
letters and gifts while he was in the service. The 
clubs helped to entertain the boys who came 
home on furlough, and now that the war is 
over, they are making plans for war memorials 
in honor of the fallen. 

Reflecting the heroic spirit of Indians at war 
in every theater of action, the list of those 
specially selected to receive military honors 
grows steadily. We shall never know of all 
the courageous acts performed "with utter 
disregard for personal safety," but the proved 
devotion of all Indian peoples on the home 
front and the conspicuous courage of their 
sons and daughters in the various services en- 
title them to share in common the honors I e 
stowed upon the few here noted. 



CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR 
The blue star-sprinkled ribbon of the highest 
award of all is given for "conspicuous gallan- 
try at the risk of life above and beyond the 
coll of duty." Relatively few of these medals 
have been given, and the nation may well be 
proud of the fact that two Indians thus far 
hove won it. The story of Lt. Ernest Childers, 
Creek, was told in Indians at Work for May- 
June 1944; that of Lt. Jock Montgomery, 
Cherokee, in the January-February number, 
1945. 

DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS 
The highest aviation honor is given for 
heroism or extraordinary achievement while 
participating in aeriol flight. The ribbon is 
blue, with a white-bordered red stripe in the 
center and white stripes near the ends. Thirty 
or more Indians have been awarded this medal 



T-Sgt. Harold E. Rogers, Scneco, with HI flying mascot Milter 




thus far, and their stories have been told in 
various issues of Indians at Work, 

Mention has already been made of Lt. 
William R. Fredenberg, Menominee, of Wis- 
consin, who wears this ribbon and also has 
the Air Medal with seven oak leaf clusters. 
The citation for the DFC reads as follows: 

"Lieutenant Fredenberg demonstrated su- 
perior skill in the execution of a dive-bombing 
ottack upon a heavily defended marshalling 
yard wherein he personally destroyed three lo- 
comotives and thereafter in the face of heavy 
and accurate enemy fire remained in the tar- 
get area strafing installations until his am- 
munition was exhausted. The outstanding 
flying ability and tactical proficiency which 
he exhibited on this occasion reflected the 
highest credit upon himself and his organiza- 
tion," 

Sgt. Shuman Shaw, a full-blood Paiute from 
California, was wounded on his third mission 
as a tail-gunner on a B-24 Liberator, but he 
stayed with his guns and shot down two of 
the enemy, with three more probably destroy- 
ed. During his 22nd mission, while raiding 
strategic installations at Budapest, he was 
again seriously wounded. On both occasions 
he was given plasma. Sgt. Shaw has the Dis- 
tinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal with 
three oak leaf clusters, the Presidential Unit 
Citation, and the Purple Heart with ook leaf 
cluster. 

AIR MEDAL, DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS 
Harold E. Rogers, Seneca from Miami, Okla- 
homa, was reported missing in action on July 
3, 1944, when his plane failed to return from 
a mission over Budapest. Sgt. Rogers had flown 
25 missions with the 8th Air Force in England, 
and then served as instructor in the United 
States for six months. He went back into ac- 
tion, this time with the 1 5th Air Force, based in 
Italy. He wore the Air Medal with nine oak 
leaf clusters, and the Distinguished Flying 
Cross. The Purple Heart was awarded to him 
posthumously. His wife, a Potawatomi from 
Kansas, who now lives in Hollywood, was a 
student at Haskell Institute with her husband, 
and Sgt. Rogers was studying law at the time 



he entered the service. He also attended Sher- 
man Institute and Riverside Junior College. 

SILVER STAR TO A YOUNG ARTIST 

A soldier who is cited for gallantry in action, 
when that gallantry does not warrant the 
aword of a Medal of Honor or a Distinguished 
Service Cross, is given the Silver Star. 

This decoration was awarded posthumously 
to Ben Quintana, a Keres, from Cochiti Pueblo. 
According to the citation, Ben was "an am- 
munition carrier in a light machine gun squad- 
ron charged with protection of the right flank 
of his troop which was counterattacked by su- 
perior numbers." The gunner was killed and 
the assistant gunner severely wounded. "Pri- 
vate Quintana," the citation continues, "re- 
fused to retire from this hazardous position 
and gallantly rushed forward to the silenced 
gun and delivered a withering fire into the 
enemy, inflicting heavy casualties. While so 
engaged he was mortally wounded. By this 
extraordinary courage he repulsed the coun- 
terattack and prevented the envelopment of 
the right flonk of his troop. Private Quin- 
tana's unflinching devotion to duty and hero- 
ism under fire inspired his troop to attack 
and seize the enemy strong point." 

With Ben Quintana's death the country hos 
lost one of its most promising young artists. 
At the age of 15, he won first prize over 80 
contestants, of whom 7 were Indians, for a 
poster to be used in the Coronado Cuarto Cen- 
tennial celebration. Later, he won first prize 
and $1,000 in an American Magazine contest 
in which there were 52,587 entries. 

SILVER STAR TO SHERMAN GRADUATE 

Captain Leonard Lowry, a graduate of Sher- 
man Institute, also wears the Silver Star. He 
was a first lieutenant at the time of the cita- 
tion, which says: "He was advancing with an 
infantry force of 500 men when they were 
halted by the enemy and the leading elements 
were pinned dawn. It wos imperative that 
this force get through. Lt. Lowry assumed 
command and directed temporary security 
measures. He then organized a small com- 
bat patrol and personally led it in storming 
the enemy elements that were delaying the 




unit's advance." Capt. Lowry has been 
wounded several times. 

LED THE WAY FOR TANKS 

The Shoshones proudly claim Marine Pfc. 
Leonard A. Webber, of Fort Hall, Idaho, who 
received his Silver Star "for gallantry and in- 
trepidity while serving with the Second Marine 
Division, during action against enemy Japan- 
ese forces on Tarawa, Gilbert Islands, from 
November 22 to November 23, 1943. During 
this period, when radio communication was 
out, he performed duties as runner between 
the tank battalion command post, tanks, 
and infantry front line positions, with utter dis- 
regard for his own personol sofefy in the face 
of heavy enemy gunfire. His skill and devo- 
tion to duty contributed greatly to the main- 
taining of communication of tank units. His 
conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity were in 
keeping with the highest tradition of the Uni- 
ted States Naval Service." 

Later, for action in 1944, Leonard Webber, 
now a Corporal, received the Bronze Star. 
This decoration is awarded for meritorious or 



heroic achievement or service, not involving 
participation in aerial flight, in connection with 
military operations against an enemy of the 
United States. The citation for the Bronze 
Star reads: 

"For meritorious achievement in action 
against the enemy on Saipan and Tinian, Mari- 
anas Islands, from 15 June to 1 August, 1944, 
while serving os a reconnaissance man in a 
Marine tank battalion. With aggressive de- 
termination and fearless devotion to duty Cor- 
poral Webber reconnoitered routes of advance 
for tanks in the face of intense enemy fire. On 
one occasion, he led a tank platoon over ex- 
ceedingly dangerous and perilous terrain, while 
under heovy mortar ond small-arms fire, to 
support the infantry advance and make it 
possible for his tank platoon to inflict severe 
casualties on the enemy. His cool courage 
and outstanding ability contributed in a large 
measure to the success of the tank operation. 
His conduct throughout was in keeping with 
the highest traditions of the United States 
Naval Service." 

SILVER STAR FOR A CHEROKEE 

The mother and father of Pvt. Blaine Queen 
received the Silver Star posthumously awarded 
to their son for heroism in action in Germany. 
Pvt. Queen, a Cherokee from North Carolina, 
was with a platoon engaged in sharp action with 



the enemy. They were under heavy fire from 
nearby enemy positions, and when their am- 
munition began to run dangerously low, Pvt. 
Queen volunteered to leave his foxhole and go 
for the needed supplies. As he ran he was mor- 
tally wounded, but in spite of his wound he kept 
on toward his destination until death overtook 
him. 

A POTAWATOMI LEADS THE WAY 
Pfc. Albert Wahweotten, Potawotomi from 
Kansos, received the Silver Star from his com- 
manding general last February in Germany. 
According to the citation, Pfc. Wahweotten, 
armed with an M-l rifle and a bozooka, worked 
his way 200 yards beyond the front lines to a 
house occupied by the enemy. In spite of heavy 
fire, he crawled to within ten yards of the 
house, which he set on fire with the bazooka. 
Then he went into the burning building ond 
captured twelve Germans, eliminating the last 
enemy resistance in the town. 

INITIATIVE, BRAVERY, AND GALLANTRY 
An Iowa-Choctaw, also from Kansas, was 
another winner of the Silver Star for gallantry 
in action against the Germans. When his su- 
perior officer was disabled, Pfc. Thurman E. 
Nanomantube took over the duties of section 
leader of a heavy machine gun section, and 
with complete disregard for his own safety ran 



across fifty yards of open ground, swept by 
heavy fire, in order to help a gunner whose gun 
was not working properly. When the battalion 
was pinned down by artillery fire, he gave first 
aid to two wounded men and handled another 
skillfully in order to keep him from becoming 
the victim of combat exhaustion. The citation 
praises Pfc. Nanomantube for his initiative, 
bravery, and gallantry 

DECORATION FOR A PAPAGO 

An engineers outfit, in combat for 165 con- 
tinuous doys on Luzon, needed the bulldozer 
which Pfc. Norris L. Galvez, Papago of Sells, 
Arizona, was driving up the road. Pfc. Norris 
was told that the Jops had two automatic 
weapons firing across the road ahead, but he 
decided that the bulldozer must go through 
and unhesitating I y drove the unprotected ma- 
chine through the field of fire, an action which 
brought him a citation and the Silver Star. 
HERO'S SON RECEIVES MEDAL 

Alec Hodge is only six years old, but he 
knows what war means. He knows, too, the 
pride with which soldiers receive their medals, 
for on Alec's small chest was recently pinned 
the Bronze Star posthumously awarded to his 
father, Pfc. Otto Hodge, a Yurok-Hoopa, who 
was killed in action in Italy. The youngster 
stood straight, as befits the son of a warrior, 
and listened to the words of the citation: "For 
heroic achievement in action arjainst the enemy 
from September 10 to September 23, 1944." 

Then he solemnly shook the proffered hand 
of Brigadier General Oscar B. Abbott, who 
mode the award. The ceremony was held at 
the Areata Naval Auxiliary Air Station near 
Eureka, California, on April 6, 1945. 

Alec has two uncles in the service. One, 
Fireman Henry Hodge, is on sea duty in the 
South Pacific, while the other, Pvt. James 
Hodge, is serving in Europe. Both uncles are 
graduates of Sherman Institute and are the 
sons of Mrs. Carrie Hodge of Trinidad, Cali- 
fornia. 

ORDEAL BY FIRE 
The citation accompanying the Bronze Star 
Medal awarded to Pvt. Houston Stevens, Kicka- 
poo from Shawnee, Oklahoma, reads: 



"For heroic achievement near St. Raphael, 
France, on 1 5 August 1 944. Struck by an aerial 
bomb as it neared shore during the invasion of 
Southern France, LST 282 was burning fiercely 
and ammunition aboard was exploding con- 
tinuously. Unmindful of the intense heat and 
the exploding ammunition, Pvt. Stevens 
manned a 50-caliber machine gun located 
within ten yards of the explosion. Though his 
hair and eyebrows were singed by the spread- 
ing flames, he remained at his post and con- 
tined to fire the gun at the enemy plane. By 
his devotion to duty, Pvt. Stevens prevented 
additional damage by the plane. His action re- 
flects credit upon himself and the armed forces 
of the United States." 

WITH THE FAMOUS IVY LEAF 

Sgt. Perry Skenandore, Oneido from Wiscon- 
sin, wears two roWs of ribbons, as well as the 
blue bar for the Presidential Unit Citation. 
He has been awarded the Silver Star, the 
Bronze Star with oak leaf cluster, and the 
Soldier's Medal. His European theater rib- 
bon carries three battle stars and the bronze 
arrow which stands for the invasion of Nor- 
mandy. Sgt. Skenandore is a member of 
the 4th Infantry Division, the Ivy Leaf, a fight- 
ing outfit which is described by a Stars and 
Stripes correspondent as follows: 

"After 199 days, ending March 9, in con- 
tinuous contact with the German army, the 
4th Division closed a chapter that carried it 
through some of the most famous battles of 
the present war. 

"Starting on August 24 with the headlong 
rush into Paris, which they liberoted the next 
day, the 4th's men never lost sight of the 
grey-uniformed Wehrmacht until they had it 
on the run towards the Rhine. 

"Included in the nearly seven months of 
grinding up Nazi hordes were the mad dash 
across Northern France and Belgium; the lib- 
eration of such towns as Chauny, St. Quentin, 
St. Hubert, Bastogne, and St. Vith. The 
doughs never stopped their eastward drive un- 
til they had bowled through the Siegfried Line. 
The 4th Division was the first unit to enter 
German soil on September 1 1, 

"History has recorded their successful but 



bloody Bottle of the Huertgen Forest and their 
magnificent stand before the city of Luxem- 
bourg in those dark days of December, when, 
according to Lt. Gen, George Patton, Jr., 'a 
tired division halted the left shoulder of the 
German thrust into the American lines and 
saved the city of Luxembourg.' 

"From this action the Ivy Leaf Division went 
over to the offensive, crossing the Sure River 
and eating into the bulge the enemy had 
built up. Switching to the St. Vith sector, they 
fought their way through the Siegfried Line 
in exactly the same place where they had 
pushed through in September. This made 
four times they had passed through the maze 
of steel and concrete that was once considered 
almost impregnable." 

Sgt. Skenandore has a good deal to tell 
about his division and its accomplishments 
against the Nazis, but little information about 
himself. The ribbons, however, speak for him. 
HELD THE LINES 

The Bronze Star Medal was awarded to 
Corporal Calvin Flying Bye, Sioux, of Little 
Eagle, South Dakota, "for heroic achievement 
in Germany on 29 and 30 November 1944. . . 
During these two days, when his division at- 
tacked a fortified enemy town, communication 
lines between the forward observer and his 
battalion were severed. In spite of heavy en- 
emy fire which was falling not more than 15 
yards from him, he checked the lines and con- 
stantly maintained them without getting any 
sleep for 48 hours. His courage end devotion 
to duty reflect great credit upon himself and 
the military service." 

AN ALASKAN SCORES 

Pfc. Herbert Bremner, Tlingit, of Yakutat, 
Alaska, has been given the Bronze Star for 
heroic action in Holland: 

"While the Anti-Tank Platoon which was 
supporting the assault battalion was moving 
its weapons forward to engage four enemy 
tanks which were holding up the progress of 
the bottalion, two of the prime movers were 
damaged by intense mortar ond machine gun 
fire, and it was necessary to repair them be- 
fore they could be used to move the weapons 
into position. Without regard for his personal 



safety, Private Bremner manned the machine 
gun, which was in an exposed position on top 
of one of the vehicles. His determined, ac- 
curate fire forced the enemy tanks to with- 
draw, thus permitting the bottalion to ad- 
vance to its objective. The high standard of 
courage of Private Bremner was a large fac- 
tor in enabling the battalion to gain its objec- 
tive and is a distinct credit to this soldier and 
the military service." 

INSPIRED HIS COMRADES 
Morion W. McKeever, Flathead, from Mon- 
tana, was awarded the Bronze Star posthum- 
ously "for meritorious achievement in connec- 
tion with military operations against the ene- 
my at Bougainville, Solomon Islands, on March 
10, 1944. During a counterattack to destroy 
the enemy forces, when his platoon made an 
advance against enemy positions. Pvt. Mc- 
Keever moved up aggressively to engage the 
enemy. Moving up as far as possible he 
crossed a machine gun lane and the enemy 
opened fire, killing him instantly. Because 
of his daring movement in spite of the heavy 
fire, he was one of the most forward men of 
the platoon. His oction was cool and brave 
and was an inspiration to all who served with 
him." 

THE BRONZE STAR FOR AN INFANTRYMAN 
A posthumous award of the Bronze Star 
Medal was made to Cpl. Jack E. Martz, Yurok- 
Smith River Indian from Grants Pass, Oregon. 
During an assault on enemy lines in Holland, 
Cpl. Mattz crept forward toward a dugout con- 
taining o large number of the enemy, killed 
several of them with his sub-machine gun, and 
when his ammunition ran out, accounted for 
the rest by using hand grenades. A few hours 
later he was killed by shell fire. 

SAVED BY PARTISANS 
Two Indian gunners with the 1 5th Air Force, 
based in Italy, had similar stories to tell of 
parachute jumps in Balkan territory. S-Sgt. 
Cornelius Wakoiee, Potowatomi, from Kan- 
sas, was forced to bail out over Yugoslavia 
when his Liberator bomber was hit by heavy 
flak. He was reported missing on October 14, 
and returned to duty some six weeks later, af- 
ter a long walk, guided across enemy-held 



territory by Yugoslav partisans. Some months 
afterward, T-Sgt. Roy Gonyea, from the Onon- 
daga Reservation, New York, made a similar 
jump and landed in a village held by the par- 
tisans, who helped him and his crew back to 
their base — after an hilarious celebration. Sgt. 
Gonyeo holds the Air Medal with two oak leaf 
clusters, and the Purple Heart. Sgt. Wakolee 
has three clusters to the Air Medal. 

PURPLE HEART, FOUR CLUSTERS 
Danny B. Marshall, Creek, from Holdenville, 
Oklahoma, has evaded death dozens of times 
and has been wounded eight times. Five of his 
wounds required hospital treatment, but the 
other three times he had first aid and did not 
report at o hospital. He has been hit in the 
face, head, arms, leg, and back, and has the 
Purple Heart with four clusters, the Bronze 
Star, the Good Conduct medal, the Combat 
Infantryman's Badge, and five battle stars 
for service in Italy, including the Anzio beach- 
head and Rome, and the invasion of Southern 
France. 

A SUBMARINE VETERAN 

"The greatest thrill of all," said John Red- 
day, Sioux, from South Dakota, "was to pass 
through the Golden Gate and set foot again on 
American soil." This remark was made after 
21 months' service in a submarine patrolling 
South Pacific waters. During this time the 
sub sank fourteen and damaged seven enemy 
vessels. Among them was one of Japan's 
largest freighters, which was destroyed by 
gunfire alone. 

The thrills ond dangers of submarine war- 
fare were many, according to Redday. Once 
a sub-chaser, disguised as a transport, discov- 
ered them while they were surfaced, and depth 
charges fell all around them before they could 
submerge. The charges were so terrific that 
the overhead motors were sheared off. An- 
other time an enemy destroyer caught their 
propguard with a grappling iron and pulled 
them forty feet toward the surface before they 
could get away. In escaping they dived far 
below normal depth and the pressure was so 
great that water leaked in from all sides. 

Redday was transferred to the Veterans' 
Hospital at Minneapolis a year ago because of 




John Had day 



tuberculosis, and is slowly improving in the 
free air of his homeland. 

A NAVAJO FIGHTS ON TWO FRONTS 

Dragging one wounded soldier, helping sup- 
port another, his own bock and legs torn by 
shrapnel, a twenty-year-old Navajo made his 
way across three hundred yards of knee-deep 
snow. Safe in his own lines again, he did not 
bother to go to the aid station. This is only 
one of the stories told about Sgt. Clifford Et- 
sitty, a star patrol scout of the Western front. 
Another time he was within 30 yards of the 
enemy when a machine gun opened up on his 
patrol. "The Chief," as he is known in the 
Army, flattened out and with six shots finish- 
ed the half-dozen Nazis who barred his way. 

Etsitty received his first Purple Heart on 
Attu, where he killed 40 Japs in 20 days. This 
was night ambush detail. Clad in white snow 
suits, the soldiers lay in wait for enemies and 



picked them off as they approached. The 
cold, dangerous work ended when a bursting 
mortar shell smashed the Navajo's jaw and 
sent him to the hospital for seven months. As 
soon as he was discharged, he was sent to the 
99th Division and continued his remarkable 
career on the German front. 

FORESIGHT AND SOUND DECISION 

The Bronze Star has also been received by 
Staff Sgt. David E. Kenote, Wisconsin Meno- 
minee, "for meritorious service in connection 
with military operations against an enemy of 
the United States, in France, from 1 August 



1944 to 31 October 1944. Sgt. Kenote inaug- 
urated a system of stock records and a proce- 
dure for requisitioning which enabled the Ad- 
jutant General, Third United States Army, suc- 
cessfully to supply and distribute War Depart- 
ment publications and blank forms to Third 
Army troops. The foresight of this non-com- 
missioned officer, and his careful planning and 
energetic execution achieved continuous sup- 
ply during all phases of a rapidly moving op- 
eration. His pljns were simple and workable, 
and .his decisions were sound. The zealous 
devotion to duty of Sgt. Kenote reflects great 
credit upon himself and the military forces of 
the United States." 



Sjt. Jimmy Deilay, Apache, itands gucrd ot the gotcwoy to Rome 01 thj U.S. Army eaten the city 



AWARDS FOR VALOR 



CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR 

Lt. Jack C. Montgomery Cherokee, Oklahoma 

Lt. Ernest Childers Creek, Oklahoma 



SILVER STAR 

S/Sgt. Francis B. Brave Sioux, Oklahoma 

Lt. William Sixkiller, Jr Cherokee, Oklahoma 

Pfc. Warren Gullickson Sioux, South Dakota 

Pfc. James R. Alexander Lummi, Washington 

Cpl. Leonard Webber Shoshone, Idaho 

Lt. James Sulphur Creek, Oklahoma 

T/4 Roger K. Paul Blackfeet, Montana 

Sgt. Knowlton Merritt Klamath-Modoc, Oregon 

Sgt. Perry Skenandore Oneida, Wisconsin 

Pfc. Ben Quintana Cochiti Puebto, New Mexico 

Cpl. Vincent Village Center Sioux, South Dakota 

T/Sgt. Joseph Lawrence Sioux, South Dakota 

Pfc. Francis Shaw Paiute, Nevada 

Pfc. Philip Kowice Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico 

Lt. Jack C. Montgomery Cherokee, Oklahoma 

Sgt. Bob Allen Choctaw, Mississippi 

Pvt. Blaine Queen Cherokee, North Carolina 

Pvt. Eugene Roubideaux Sioux, South Dakota 

Pfc. Alonzo Enos Pima, Arizona 

Pfc. Albert Wahweotten Potawatomi, Kansas 

Sgt. Clifford Etsitty Navajo, New Mexico 

Bert G. Eaglehorse Sioux, South Dakota 

Pfc. George W. Walker Cherokee, North Carolina 

Sgt. Leo Upshaw Navajo, New Mexico 

Pfc. Thurman E. Nanomontube Iowa-Choctaw, Kansas 

Pfc. Norris L. Galvez Papago, Arizona 

Pvt. Vincent Hunts Horses Sioux, South Dakota 



DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS 

Lt. William R. Fredenberg Menominee, Wisconsin 

Lt. Richard Balenti. Cheyenne-Haida, Oklahoma 

S/Sgt. Peter N. Jackson Hoopa, California 

S/Sgt. Shumon Shaw Paiute, California 

S/Sgt. Neil McKinnon Yurok, California (1 cluster) 

S/Sgt. Alfred Dalpino Shoshone, Idaho 

T/5gt. Theodore S. Breiner Sioux, North Dakota 

S/Sgt. Ernest DuBray Blackfeef, Montana (3 clusters) 

Lt. Alfred Houser Apache, Oklahoma (1 cluster) 

S/Sgt. Albert Lopez Delaware, Oklahoma 

Lt. Edward Tinker Osage, Oklahoma (2 clusters) 

S/Sgf. Archie Hawkins Sioux, South Dakota 

S/Sgt. Steve Brown Paiute, Nevada 

T/Sgt. Harold E. Rogers Seneca, Oklahoma 

S-Sgt. Robert C. Kirkoldte Assiniboine, Montana 

9 



AWARDS FOR VALOR 



AIR MEDAL 

S/Sgt. Roger Worlee Paiute, Nevada (9 clusters) 

S/Sgt. Shuman Shaw Paiute, California (3 clusters) 

T/Sgt. Waldron A. Frazier Sioux, South Dakota 

S/Sgt. Cornelius L. Wakolee. .Potawatomi, Okla. (3 clusters) 
S/Sgt. Clifton J. Rabideaux. . . .Chippewa, Minn. (5 clusters) 

S/Sgt. Peter N. Jackson Hoopo, California 

T/Sgt. Oliver Gibbs Chippewa, Minnesota (3 clusters) 

Lt. Charles Smith Bannock, Idaho 

S/Sgt. Alfred Dalpino Shoshone, Idaho (12 clusters) 

Lt. John Cook Mohawk, New York 

T/Sgt. Orus Baxter, Jr Creek, Oklahoma 

S/Sgt. Abe Zuni Isleta Pueblo, N. M. (3 clusters) 

T/Sgt. Forrest J. Gerard Blackfeet, Montana 

S/Sgt. Jesse LaBuff Blackfeet, Montana (2 clusters) 

Sgt. Floyd Monroe Blackfeet, Montana (1 cluster) 

Lt. Kenneth M. Lee Sioux, South Dakota (1 cluster) 

Pfc. Albert E. Fairbanks. . . .Chippewa, Minnesota (1 cluster) 

S/Sgt. Earl M. Thomas Lummi, Washington (1 cluster) 

Sgt. Cloyd I. Gooday Apache, Oklahoma 

T/Sgt. Kent C. Ware Kiowa, Oklahoma (2 clusters) 

Lt. Myers Wahnee Comanche, Oklahoma (clusters) 

S/Sgt. Fred B. Larmer Sioux, South Dakota 

Sgt. John C. Rustemeyer Sioux, South Dakota 

T/Sgt. Cleveland J. Bordeaux Sioux, S. Dak. (4 clusters) 

Sgt. Lawrence R. Morris Iowa, Kansas 

S/5gt. John Lee Redeagle Quapaw, Oklahoma 

S/Sgt. Albert Lopez Delaware, Oklahoma (1 cluster) 

S/Sgt. Glenn Black Quileute, Washington (4 clusters) 

Sgt. Joseph Black Quileute, Washington 

Lt. John C. Dirickson Osage, Oklahoma (1 cluster) 

S/Sgt. Blaze Savage Chippewa, Minnesota 

S/Sgt. Archie Hawkins Sioux, South Dakota 

S/Sgt. Steve Brown Paiute, Nevada ■ 

T/Sgt. Harold E, Rogers Seneco, Oklahoma(9 clusters) 

Lt. Charles E. Harris Pawnee, Oklahoma (1 cluster) 

S-Sgt. Robert C. Kirkaldie. . . Assiniboine, Montana (3 clusters) 



DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS (BRITISH) 
Lt. Gilmore C. Daniel (RCAF) Osage, Oklahoma 

DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER (3RITISH) 
Lt. Gilmore C. Daniel (RCAF) Osage, Oklahoma 



SOLDIER'S MEDAL 

Sgt. Perry Skenandore Oneida, Wisconsin 

10 



AWARDS FOR VALOR 



BRONZE STAR MEDAL 

Pfc. Herbert M. Bremner Tlingit, Alaska 

S/Sgf. David E. Kenote Menominee, Wisconsin 

Pfc. William A. Davis Chippewa, North Dakota 

Cpl. Samuel Powvall Mission, California 

Pfc. Bernard Tracy Navajo, New Mexico 

Pfc. Otto Hodge Yurok, California 

Cpl. Leonard Webber Shoshone, Idaho 

Cpl. Jimmy Begay Navojo, New Mexico 

Sgt. Louis Provost Omaho, South Dakota 

Pfc. Harvey Natchees Ute, Utah 

Pfc. Danny B. Marshall Creek, Oklahoma 

T/5 Calvin Dailey Otoe, Oklahoma 

Pfc. Ray Toledo Navajo, New Mexico 

Walter Key Biye, AOMi 'lie . .Navajo, Arizona 

Pfc. Augustine Smith Paiute-Klamath, Oregon 

S/Sgt. Walter J. Roberts Seminole, Oklahoma 

Cpl. Calvin Flying Bye Sioux, South Dakota 

Cpl. Bert Orben Good Chippewa, Minnesota 

T/5 Warren Adams Blackfeet-Gros Ventre, Montana 

Lt. Myron W. Anderson Blackfeet, Montana 

Pvt. Marion McKeever Flathead, Montana 

Sgt. Perry Skenandore Oneida, Wisconsin 

Pfc. Joe C. Lewis Papago, Arizona 

Cpl. Romon Juan Papago, Arizona 

T/3 John E. Snyder .Seneca, New York 

Pfc. John W. Kionut '. Coddo, Oklahoma 

Sgt. Lanert Brown Eyes Sioux, South Dakota 

Cpl. Garfield T. Brown Sioux, South Dakota 

Sgt. Norman Janis Sioux, South Dakota 

Pfc. Carl Broken Rope Sioux, South Dakota 

Donald O'Neal Arapahoe, Wyoming 

Sgt. Bert H. Jefferson Lummi, Washington 

Pfc. Leonard Johnny Nooksack, Washington 

Pfc. August L. Smith Mokah-Lummi, Washington 

Lt. James M. Ware Osage, Oklahoma 

Pvt. Lester D. Douglcs Navajo, New Mexico 

Nat Becenti Navajo, New Mexico 

Sgt. Jose P. Benovidez Isleta Pueblo, New Mexico 

Pfc. Harvey Walking Eagle Sioux, South Dakota 

Cpl. Jack E. Mattz Yurok, California 

Pvt. Houston Stevens Kickapoo, Oklahoma 

Sgt. Leo Upshow Navajo, New Mexico 

Sgt. Augustine Chico Papago, Arizona 

Cpl. Ralph Andres Papago, Arizona 

Cpl. Lyndreth Palmer Kiowa, Oklahoma 

Pvt. LeRoy Hamlin Ute, Colorado 

Pvt. Vance Broken Rope Sioux, South Dakota 

Pvt. Leonard White Bull Sioux, South Dakota 

Pvt. Alex Hernandez Sioux, South Dakota 

Pfc. Clyde Smith Huolapai, Arizona 



11 



CEREMONIAL DANCES IN THE PACIFIC 



tOne of the lost stories wr.-(ten fay Ernie' Pyle before 
his trogic death on le Island was about the Indians of 
the First Marine Division on Okinawa. It is reprinted here 
by permission of Scripps-Howard Newspapers and United 
Feature Syndicate, Inc. The ceremonial dances, according 
to Marine Combat Correspondent Walter Wood, included 
the Apoche Devil Donee, the Eocle Donee, the Hoop 
Donee, the War Dance, and the Novo/o Mountain Chant. 
Besides the Navajos, Sioux, Comanche, Apache, Pima, 
Kiowa, Pueblo, and Crow Indians took part in the 
ceremonies J 



By ERNIE PYLE 



Okinawa — (By Novy Radio); — Back nearly 
two -years ogo when I was with Oklahoma s 
45th Division in Sicily and loter in Italy, I 
learned that they had a number of Navajo In- 
dians in communications. 

When secret orders had to be given over 
the phone these boys gave them to one an- 
other in Navajo. Practically nobody in the 
world understands Navajo except another Na- 
vajo. 

Well, my regiment of First Division Marines 
hos the same thing. There are about eight In- 
dians who do this special work. They ore good 
Marines and are very proud of being so. 

There are two brothers among them, both 
named Joe. Their last names are the ones 
that are different. I guess that's a Navojo 
custom, though I never knew of it before. 

One brother, Pfc. Joe Gatewood, went to the 
Indian School in Albuquerque. In fact our 
house is on the very same street, and Joe said 
it sure was good to see somebody from home. 

Joe has been out here three years. He is 
34 and has five children back home whom he 
would like to see. He was wounded several 
months ago and got the Purple Heart. 



Joe's brother is Joe Kellwood who has also 
been out here three years. A couple of the 
others are Pfc. Alex Williams of Winslow, 
Ariz., and Pvt. Oscar Carroll of Fort Defiance, 
Ariz., which is the capital of the Navajo reser- 
vation. Most of the boys are from around 
Fort Defiance and used to work for the Indian 
Bureau. 

The Indian boys knew before we got fo Okin- 
awa that the invasion landing wasn't going to 
be very tough. They were the only ones in the 
convoy who did know it. For one thing they 
saw signs and for another they used their own 
influence. 

Before the convoy left the far south tropical 
island where the Navajos had been training 
since the last campaign, the boys put on a cere- 
monial dance. 

The Red Cross furnished some colored cloth 
and paint to stain their faces. They made up 
the rest of their Indian costumes from chicken 
feathers, sea shells, coconuts, empty ration 
cans and rifle cartridges. 

Then they did their own native ceremonial 
chonts and dances out there under the tropical 
palm trees with several thousand Marines as 
a grave audience. 



12 



In their chant they osked the great gods in 
the sky to sap the Japanese of their strength 
for this blitz. They put the finger of weakness 
on the Japs. And then they ended their cere- 
monial chant by singing the Marine Corps 
song in Novajo. 

I asked Joe Gatewood if he really felt their 
dance had something to do with the ease of 



13 

our landing and he soid the boys did believe 
so ond were very serious about it, himself in- 
cluded. 

"I knew nothing was going to happen to us," 
Joe said, "for on the way up here there was a 
rainbow over the convoy and I knew then ev- 
erything would be all right." 



A CHOCTAW LEADS THE GUERRILLAS 



In April 1945, after more than three years 
as a guerrilla leader in the Philippines, Lt. 
Col. Edward Ernest McClish came home to Ok- 
mulgee, Oklahoma, where his family, who had 
refused to believe him dead, waited for him. 
Some of his story has been told in American 
Guerrilla in the Philippines, by Ira Wolfert, and 
other detoils have been added in a report given 
to the Public Relations Bureau of the Wor De- 
partment by Col. McClish. It is an extraordi- 
nary tale of accomplishment against great 
odds. 

Lt. Col. McClish, a Choctaw, who graduated 
from Haskell Institute in 1 929 and from Bacone 
College two years later, was colled to active duty 
in the National Guard in 1940, and early in 
1941 he arrived in the Philippines, where he 
become commander of a company of Philip- 
pine scouts. In August he went to Panay to 
mobilize units of the Philippine Army there, 
and as commander of the Third Battalion he 
moved his men to Negros, where they were 
stationed when the war broke out. Late in 
December they crossed by boat to Mindanao, 
and there oil the Moro bolo battalions were 
added to McClish's command. 

The Japanese did not reach Mindanao un- 
til April 29, 1942, shortly before the American 
capitulation on Luzon, and Col. McClish's men 
fought them for nearly three weeks. When 
forces on the island finally surrendered, Mc- 
lish, a casualty in the hospital, some distance 
from headquarters, was fortunately unable to 
join his men. Instead of capitulating he began 
to organize a guerrilla army. 

By September 1942, he had an organization 
of more than 300 soldiers, with four machine 
guns, 150 rifles, and six boxes of ammuni- 
tion. Some American and Filipino officers had 
escaped capture and joined the staff. In the 
early stages of the organization, McClish got 
word of a Colonel Fertig, of the Army En- 
gineers, who was working along similar lines in 
the western part of Mindanao, and he managed 
to reach Fertig by travelling in a small sailboat 
along the coast. The two men decided to con- 



solidate their commands, and Colonel Fertig 
asked McClish to organize the fighting forces 
in the four eastern provinces of the island as 
the 1 1 0th Division. 

Organization was at first very difficult. In- 
dependent guerrilla bands had sprung up all 
over the island, some of them composed of 
robbers and bandits who terrorized the villages. 
Some were anti-American, says Colonel Mc- 
lish. Most of them lacked military training and 
education. But slowly the work proceeded. 
The bandits were disarmed and jailed; the 
friendly natives were trained, and young men 
qualified to be officers were commissioned. By 
the spring of 1943 McClish had assembled a 
full-strength regiment in each of the three pro- 
vinces, a fourth had been started, and Division 
headquarters staff had been completed. 

Simultaneously with the military organiza- 
tion, civil governments were set up in each 
province. Wherever possible, the officials who 
had held jobs in pre-war days were reappointed, 
provided that they had not collaborated with 
the Japanese. Provincial and municipal offi- 
cials worked hond in hand with the military, 
and helped greatly to build up the army's 
Strength. 

Because of the shortage of food, reports 
Colonel McClish, a Food Administrator and a 
Civil and a Judicial Committee were appointed 
to begin agricultural and industrial rehabilita- 
tion. Army projects for the production of food 
and materials of war were begun throughout 
the Division area, and all able-bodied men be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 50 were required to 
give one day's work each week to one of these 
projects. They raised vegetables, pigs, pouJtry, 
sugar cane, and other foods. The manufacture 
of sugar, soap, alcohol, and coconut oil was 
started. Fishing was encouraged. In seme of 
the provinces food production was increased 
beyond the peacetime level. The civilians real- 
ized that they were part of the army, and that 
only a total effort could defeat the enemy. 

The public relations office published a news- 
paper, and headquarters kept in communica- 



14 



tion with the regiments in each province by 
radio, by telephone (when wire was available), 
or by runner. The guerrillas acquired launches 
and barges which had been kept hidden from 
the Japanese, and these were operated by 
home-made alcohol and coconut oil. Seven 
trucks provided more transport, but it was 
safer and easier to use the sea than The land. 
In order to maintain their motor equipment, 
they "obtained" a complete machine shop 
from o Japanese lumbering company in their 
territory. 

From September 15, 1942, to January 1, 
1 945, while McClish's work of organization and 



administration was continuing, his guerrilla 
forces were fighting the Japanese, and more 
than 350 encounters — ambushes, raids on pa- 
trols and small garrisons, and general engage- 
ments — were listed on their records. One hund- 
red and fifteen men were killed and sixty-four 
wounded. Enemy losses were estimated at more 
than 3000 killed and six hundred wounded. 
The guerrillas finally made contact with the 
American forces in the South Pacific and sup- 
plied them with valuable information about the 
enemy which was extremely helpful when the 
time for the invosion of the Philippines came 
at last. They did their part in bringing about 
the final victory in the Pacific. 



Prt. Cloienec Spotted Wo II 



AN EMPTY SADDLE 

"If I should be killed, I want you to bury me cession. It is pleasing to fancy the spirits of 
on one of the hills east of the place where my brave warriors long departed watching benign- 
grandparents and brothers and sisters and 1y from the Happy Hunting Grounds, 
other relatives are buried. As for the empty saddle — who knows? 

"If you have a memorial service, I want the 
soldiers to go ahead with the American flag. 
I want cowboys to follow, all on horseback. I 
want one of the cowboys to lead one of the 
wildest of the T over X horses with saddle and 
bridle on. 

"I will be riding that horse." 

Such were the written instructions left by 
Pvt. Clarence Spotted Wolf, full-blood Gros 
Ventre, with his tribesmen. He was killed 
December 21, 1944, in Luxembourg. 

Pvt. Spotted Wolf was born May 18, 1914. 
He entered the service in Januory, 1942, and 
a year later was transferred to o tank battalion. 
He went overseas in August, 1944, 

On January 28, in Elbowoods, North Dako- 
ta, the memorial service he had foreseen was 
held in his honor. It was an impressive cere- 
mony. The Stars and Stripes presided over the 
winter-bare hills where Clarence Spotted 
Wolf's family and friends carried out his 
wishes. There were soldiers; there were cow- 
boys; and his own saddle had been placed on 
the T over X horse, which was led in the pro- 




15 



WE HONOR THESE DEAD 



Lonnie Allen 
Adam Harney 
Ernest Stanley 
Johnnie Goodluck 
Haskell A. Osife 
Antony Jose 
Joe Terry 
Willacot Anfon 
Robert E. Allison 
Joshua Morris 
Leander Shelde 
Joseph Thomas 
Percy Osife 
Fred Washington 
Phillip Largo 
Thomos Throssell 
Alfred Perkins 
Alfred Ferguson 
Frank Banashley 
Thomas Altaha 
Ralph Adny 

Norman Puhuquaptewa 
Walter Nelson 
Stetson Pahayeoma 
Waiter Keyannie 
Kayah Gale 
Harold Poncho 
Clarence Beeson 
Allen Honawahoya 
Roy Hoahtewa 
Alfonso Zeyouma 
Eugene Mansfield 
Alton Kidde 
Evans Reede 
Frank Reede 
Edmund Smith 
Silas Lefthand 
Fred R. Loukai 
Felix Ashley 
Sam J. Earl 
Antonio J. Alvarez 
Alonzo Antone 
Ventura B. Carlos 
Venito M Condio 
Austin Francisco 
Lawrence Garcia 
Joe Gonzales 
Joe C. Lewis 
Dennis Manuel 
Fred James 
Henry Isaac Norris 
Joseph Hendricks 
Stephen Thomas Carrillo 
Johnston Peters 
Edward Harris 



ARIZONA 
Apache (San Carlos) 
Apache (San Carlos) 
Apache (San Carlos) 
Navajo 
Pima 

Pima - . r , 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Pima 

Papago 

Pima 

Maricopa 

Apache (Fort Apache) 

Apache (Fort Apache) 

Apache (Fort Apache) 

Hopi 

Navajo 

Hopi 

Navajo 

Navajo 

Hopi 

Hopi 

Hopi 

Hopi 

Hopi 

Hopi 

Apache (San Carlos) 

Apache (San Carlos) 

Apache (San Carlos) 

Navajo 

Navajo 

Navajo 

Navajo 

Navajo 

Papago 

Papago 

Papago 

Papago 

Popago 

Papago 

Papago 

Papago 

Papago 

Pima 

Papago 



Pacific 
France 
Luxembourg 
France 



Papago 
Pima 
Papago 
16 



U. S. A. 
Leyte - 
France 
Luzon 
Italy 

Germany 
Luxembourg 
Luzon 
Leyte 

Luxembourg 

Pacific 

France 

Germany 

Pacific * 

Philippines 

U. S. A. 

U. S. A. 

Pacific 

New Britain 

Luzon 

Germany 

Luzon 

Burma 

Pacific 

Luzon 

France 

Belgium 

Italy 

Luzon 

Luzon 

Italy 

Luzon 

Luzon 

Pacific 

Pacific 

England 

Luzon 

Okinawa 

Germany 

Okinawa 



Raymond T. Carrillo 
Alfred Tsosie 
El wood King 
Joe Singer 
Tom Singer 
Waiter Key Biye 

Reginaldo Helms 
John P. Emeterio 
Otto Hodge 
Baron D. Risling 
Romaldo Natt 
Joe Blacktooth 
Augustine Quevas 
Lee M. Angel 
Gilbert Cleland 
George Estrada 
Steve Levi 
Merced Norte 
Gene Pablo 
Philip Peters 
Fred Rodriguez 
Bob Smith 
Wilfred Ward 
William Besoain 
Melvin Cadoza 
Henry Davis 
John Duncan 
Charles L. Hendersor 
James Ladd 
Eugene Lewis 
Jack Mattz 
Leonard W. Mosely 
Floyd Pilgrim 
Arthur Case, Jr. 

Albert Box 

Wilbur Washington 

Elmer Lewis 

James Burt 
Howard Cutler 
Stanley George 
Matthew Honenah 
Nelson Ingawanup 
James Mosho, Jr. 
Adolph Alexie 

William Lasley 
Herbert H. DeRoin 
Paul G. Wamego 
Edgar H. Goslin 

Daniel McKenzie 

James I lohnson 

Jacob Anderson 



Papago 
Navajo 
Nova jo 
Navajo 
Navajo 
Navajo 
CALIFORNIA 
Mission (Soboba) 
Sacramento 
Yurok 
Hoop a 
Yurok 



on (Pala) 
ion (Santa Ysobel) 
(Mesa Grande) 
ion (Meso Grande) 
on (Mesa Grande) 
ion (Torres-Martinez 
on (Los Coyotes) 
ion (Santo Ysabel) 
on (Pauma) 
on (Rincon) 
on (Mesa Grande) 
on (La Jollo} 



Missi 
Missi 
Miss. 
Missi 
Miss^ 
Missi 
Miss: 
Missi 
Miss' 
Mis 
Miss 
Missi 
Karok 
Hoopa (Smith River) 
Hoopo (Weott) 
Hoopa (Waitaki) 
Hoopa (Mattole) 
Klamath 
Yurok 
Yurok 

Hoopa (Ee! River) 

Klamath 

Karok 

COLORADO 
Ute 
Ute 
Navajo 

IDAHO 
Shoshone 
Shoshone 
Shoshone 

Shoshone , 
Shoshone 
Shoshone 
Coeur D'AIene 

KANSAS 
Potawatomi 
Iowa 

Potawatomi 
Kickapoo 
MINNESOTA 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 

17 



Okinawa 

Bougainville 

Iwo Jima 

Philippines 

Peleliu 

Pacific 

Belgium 
Belgium 
Italy 
U. S. A. 
Germany 
Japan 
Japan 
Germany 
Germany 
Saipan 
)Saipan 
France 
Pacific 
U. S. A. 
Germany 
Germany 
Germany 



Saipan 



Italy 



Leyte 
Italy 



Luzon 

Atlantic 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Okinawa 

Italy 
France 
Germany 
Pacific 

Holland 
France 
France 



Adclph King 
Lewis E Taylor 
George Sheehy 
Francis 5. Bushman 
James I. Cook 
George Kelly 
Peter Morgan 
Vincent Zimmerman 
John S. Mercer 
Joseph Weaver 
Ralph Robinson 
Richard Johnson 
Jesse J. Tibbetts 
Sylvester Chorboneau 
Lyman Tanner 
Richard Boshey 
Wesley Eagle 
Williom Potter 
Robert TeJohn 
Hubert Williams 
Richard Sailor 
Martin E. Simons 
Robert Bellond 
Eddie Brown 
George Brunette 
Domini Misquadace 
Lawrence Carl 
Dean Ortershaw 
Clifford John Antell 



Bob Allen 

Gibson T. McMillan 
Emmetr Jackson 
Able Sam 
John Day Isaac 
Raymond Martin 



Murry L. Williamson 
Fredrk i. Bauer, Jr. 
Sam Divss Backwards 
George B. Magee, Jr. 
Wilbur Spang 
Daniel L. Pablo 
Warren L. Gardipe 
Leonard R Jette 
Joseph 0. Pronovost 
William Pronovost 
Louis C. Charlo 
Oswald A. Felsman 
Pascal Bonn 
Julian A. Pablo 
Clarence L Marengo 
Elmer C. Ladue 
Fredrick E. Kasko 
Isaac Matf 
Elvir, Matt 

Harvey V'. Ducharme 



Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 
Chippewa 

MISSISSIPPI 
Ci.octaw 
Choctaw 
Choctow 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 

MONTANA 
Blackfeet 
Sioux 
Cheyenne 
Blackfeet 
Cheyenne 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flnthead 
Fl'ithead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 
Flathead 



France 

Germany 

Italy 

Manchukuo 

Luzon 

France 

France 

Europe 

Germany 

Belgium 

Germany 

Africa 

English Channel 

At Sea 

Luzon 

Belgium 

Pacific 

Italy 

Luzon 

Belgium 

France- 

Pacific 

Italy 

Italy 

U. S. A. 

Luzon 
Pacific 
Pacific 



Solomons 

Luzon 

Germany 

Germany 

U. S. A. 

Germany 

Luzon 

Luzon 

Luzon 

France 

U. S. A. 

Germany 

Philippines 

Pacific 

I wo Jima 

France 

Belgium 

Philippines 

Italy 



Germany 
Germany 
Germany 



Francis Heavyrunner 
Eugene Horn 
William Wolftoll 
Fred De Roche 
Patrick Reevis 
William Allison, Jr. 
Charles Stewart 
Roger K. Paul 
Melvin Rides at the Door 
Joseph Long Knife 
Benjamin Chopwood 
Pius Wing 
Richard King, Jr. 
Murphy Gunn 

Thomas H. Harrison 



Seymour Arnot 
Stanley Winnemucco 
Francis Shaw 
Henry West, Jr. 
Scott Green 
Arthur F. Jones 
Mike Drew 
Edward Joe 
Sidney Jack 
Clarence Hanks 
Warren Wilson 

James Romero 
Alex Fragua 
Pablo Fragua 
Ben Quintana 
Anthony Mitchell 
Osborne Sam 
Jack Antonio 
Jose R. Lucero 
Alfonso G. Nahkoi 
Aghe Beligoody 
Silas Yazzie 
Jim Tom 
David Harvey 
Bernard Dolan 
Martin Aragon 
Kee Y. Chico 
Eorl Ayze 

Vincent Wemytewa 
Harry White 
John C. Nelson 
Paul G. Chaves 
Jose Cruz Duran 
Jose C. Tenorio 
Raymond Rosetta 
Richord Jamon 
Joe Ben 
Hilario Armijo 
Cypriono Herrera 



Block feat 
B |ock1 eel- 
Block teet 
Block feat 
BIock teet 
Block Iter 
Block+eet 
Btockfeet 
Bloc^e-et 
Ass i rube me 
AssiniDome 
Assinit'Qine 
Assinibotne 
Assimboine 

NEBRASKA 
Winnet-ogo 

NEVADA 
Washoe 
Poiuie 
Poiuie 
Poiute 
Poiuie 
Poiute 
Poiute 
Washoe 
Poiuie 
Paiule 
Poiuie 

NEW MEXICO 
Lagu'-'C Pueblo 
Jemez Pueblo 
Jemez Pueblo 
Cochiti Pueblo 
Navajo 
Navajo 

Acorr.o Pueblo 
Isletc Pueblo 
Navajo 
Novo jo 
Navajo 
Navajo 
Novo jo 

Apache (Mescalero) 

Logur>o Pueblo 

Navc;o 

Navojo 

Zuni 

Navojc 

Navojo 

Acoma Pueblo 
San Felipe Pueblo 
San Felipe Pueblo 
Santo Domingo Pueblo 
Zuni 
Navojo 
Jemez Pueblo 
Tesuque Pueblo 



France 

Leyte 

France 

Belgium 

Luzon 

Germany 

Pacific 

France 

Germany 

Luzon 

Italy 

France 

France 

Pacific 

France 

Pacific 

Africa 



Africa 

Italy 

Peleliu 

Europe 

Europe 

Pacific 



France 

Philippines 
France 

Germany 

Palou Islands 

France 

Italy 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

France 

France 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Leyte 



Pacific 

Luzon 
Luzon 
Germany 
Europe 



19 



Jimmie Weahke 
John Wesley Romero 
Harley Kanteena 
Poul Kinlahcheeny 
Jose E. Lopez 
George Vicenti 
Frank Lucero 
Jose Chewiwi 
Jose Romero 
Vicenti Mirabal 
Som Morgan 
Edgar Lunasee 
Jose F. Mirabal 
Mariano Pacheco 
Paul Fernando 
Joe B. Garcia 
Ted Bird 

Jimmy Rodriguez 
Marce L. Korris 
Harold White 
Sidney David 
Jay Delawashie 
John Martin 



Collins Moses 
Henry Powless 
Sylvester Thompson 
Silas William Chew 
Ernest Printup 
Archie Oakes 
Louis Barnes 
Andrew Cook 
Froncis Jock 
Clarence Carnon 
John Seabrean 
Carroll Patterson 
Kenneth Fatty 
Linas Snow 
Roland Redeye 
Harlan Laye 
Froncis Waterman 
Kenneth Parker 
Raymond John 
Frank Doxtator 



Mark J. Rattler 
Isaac Ross 
Vernon Sneed 
Enos Thompson 
William Taylor, Jr. 
Adam West Driver 
Jeremiah Toineeta 
Blaine Queen 
Richmond Lambert 
Edward Hardin 
Clarence Murphy 
Joshua Shell 



Zuni 

Laguna Pueblo 

Zuni 

Navajo 

Santa Arid Pu*bto 
Apache (Jiajrilla) 
Laguna ■ Puefetd 
Isleta Pueblo 
Santa Ana Pueblo 
Taos Pueblo 
Navajo 
Zuni 

Santa Cfdra °ueblo 

Laguna Puebio 

Laguna Pueblo 

Santo Dommcjo Pueblo 

Santo Dommgo Pueblo 

Laguna Pueblo 

Santo Domingo Pueblo 

Navojo 

Navajo 

Navajo 

Navajo 

NEW YORK 
Seneca ■ ■■ 
Onondaga: 
Mohawk i 
Tuscarora 
Tuscarora 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 

Tonawanda-Seneca 
Tohawonda-Seneca 
To n a wa nd a -S e neca 
Onondaga 
Seneca , 
Seneco 
Seneca 
Onondaga 
Seneca 
Seneco 
Seneca 
NORTH CAROLINA 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 
Cherokee 



Italy 

Belgium 

Italy 

Iwo Jima 

Romania 
Pacific 
Europe 
Pacific 

Iwo Jima 
Philippines 

Italy 

Germany 

Europe 

Germany 

Okinawa 
Italy 

Philippines 
Philippines 
Philippines 

Germany 

Tarawa 

France 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

France 

Manila 

At Seo 

At Sea 

Sicily 

France 

France 

France 

Germany 
Tarawa 



Pacific 

Pacific 

Germany 

Luxembourg 

Pacific 

Iwo Jima 

Germany 

Germany 

Germany 

Pacific 

U. S. A. 

Okinawa 



20 



NC-"H DAKOTA 



Donald Hosie 
Philip Lohnes 
Clarence Spotted Wolf 
Leonard Red Tomahawk 
William A. Davis 
Joseph R. Agard 
Wallace J. Demery 
Louis Calvin Noel 
Matthew American Hors 
Earle Defender 
Joseph Goudreau 
Paul Yankton 



Harold E. Rogers 
Grant Cover 
Dennis W. Bluejacket 
George Choate, Jr. 
Charles Edward Harris 
Reuben Mashunkashey 
Moses Red Eagle 
Mathson Whiteshield 
Jim N. Chuculate 
Chories E. Sam 
Zack L. Smith 
George D. Coons 
Cornelius Hardman, Jr. 
James L. Douglas 
David Cross, Jr. 
Wesley Osage 
Cyrus Packer 
Kingsley Allrunner 
Wayne Beartrock 
Nelsoo Bearbow 
Levi Hosetosavit 
Rayson Billy 
Davis Pickens 
Dan Roebuck 
Lewis E. Wade 
John Floyd Wall 
Edmond Perry 
John Carney 
Johnson Harjo 
Charles W. Imotichey 
Hershel L. Malone 
Orus Baxter, Jr. 
Jomes Sulphur 
Willie Scott 
Charles G. Keighley 
Owen Mombi 
Whitney Holata 
Sam Fixico 
Johnnie Buckner 
James Paul Fireshaker 
John Wallace 
Andrew Brokeshaulder 
T. P. Hattensty 



ux (Fort Totten) 
M Ventre 

njat (Standing Rock) 
■ppewa 

(Standing Rock) 
tix (Standing Rock) 
■an (Standing Rock! 
MX (Standing Rock) 
ax (Standing Rock) 
ax (Standing Rock) 
nx (Fort Totten) 



Holland 
New Britain 
i_uxembourg 
Leyte 

New Guinea 

Marianas 

Ireland 

Belgium 

Germany 

Italy 

Germany 
France 



0<LAHOMA 




Seneca 


Europe 


Pew nee 


France 


Shawnee-Cherokee 


Europe 


Cr-tyervne-Arapaho 


Pcanee 


France 


Osage 


Luxembourg 


Osage 


Italy 


Cheyenne-Arapaho 


Five Civilized Tribes 


Luxembourg 


Five Civilized Tribes 


Belgium 


Ponco 


Germany 


Pcwr.ee 


Germany 


Pc-r^O 


Luxembourg 


Creek 


Philippines 


Cc-L'do-Cheyenne 


Philippines 


Cheyenne 


Pacific 


Cheyenne 


Europe 


Cheyenne 


U. S. A. 


Cheyenne 


U. S. A. 


Cheyenne 


U. S. A. 


Comanche 


France 


Choctaw 


Sicily 


Choctaw 


Sicily 


Choctaw 


Africa 


Choctaw 


Germany 


Choctaw 


Pacific 


Choctaw 




Choctaw 




Seminole 


France 


Chickasaw 


Italy 


Chickasaw 


England 


Creek 


Germany 


Creek 


France 


Creek 


France 


Osoge 


Germany 


Choctaw 


Germany 


Seminole 


England 


Seminole 


Mediterranean 


Creek 


Pacific 


Ponca 


Okinawa 


Choctaw 


Africa 


Choctaw 


Sicily 


Choctaw 


Anzio 



Billie Jack 
Paul B. Blanche 
Osborne L. Blanche 
Ray Bohanon 
Aaron C usher 
Hanson H. Jones 
Walter D. McClure 
Aaron Watkins 
LeRoy Mc Noel 
Marion Ruling Harris 
Andrew Warrior 
Lee Edward Ahcheka 
Thomas P. Carter 
Paul K. Stevens 
Donald Beaver 
Raymond Brown 
Thomas Chockpoych 
Matthew Hawzipta 
Melvin Myers 
Lyndreth Palmer 
Louis Rivas 
Ben Trevino, Jr. 
Gilbert Vidana 
Joe Guoladdle 
Nathaniel Bitseedy 
Dan Madrano, Jr. 
Forrest Tabbyyetchy 
Mont Bruce Williams 
John Stevens 
Lewis Mitchell 
Joseph J. King 
Johnnie F. Gokey 
Joseph G. Bratton 
Bennett H. Griffin 
Clobe C. Mackey 
Joseph L. LoSarge 
Harold L. McKiniey 
Rudolph McKiniey 
Frank Riddle, Jr. 
Milton Otis Ririe 
Harold B. Smalley 
Eugene E. Slaughter 
Clarence Tinker, Jr. 
Robert E. Warrior 
Elmer C. Weinrich 
William Silas Coons 
Charles G. Red Bird 
William Sixkiller, Jr. 
Henry W. Conowoop 
Floyd Primeaux 



Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 

Sac and Fox- 

Shawnee 1 

Soc and V-ox- 

Sac and l"ox- - 

Kickapoo 

Caddo K . 

Wichita 

Comanche' 

Kiowa 

Comanche 

Kiowa ' ' ', 

Comanche 

Comanche 

Comanche 

Kiowa 

Kiowa- Apache 

Coddo 

Comanche* 

Caddo 

Choctow 

Creek " " 

Ottawa 

Sac and Fox 

Osoge 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Osage 

Pawnee 

Cheyenne 

Cherokee 1 

Comanche 

Ponca 



Japan 
Europe 



Tinian 
Pacific 



Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Germany 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Pacific 

U. S. A. 

Europe 

U. S. A. 

U. S. A. 

Europe 

Atlantic 

Germany 

Luzon 

Pacific 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Philippines 

France 

Pacific 

Ponoma 

Pacific 

Pacific 

Mediterranean 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Pacific 

Saipan 

Luzon 



Raymond L. Enouf 
Roscoe Dick 
Gilbert Yahtin 
Wesley Morrisette 



OREGON 

Klamath 
Warm Springs 
Warm Springs 
Walla Walla 
22 



Pacific 
Philippine 
Belgium 
Italy 



Guy L. Archambeaii 
Daniel L. Quickbear 
Joseph Running Horse 
Raymond Lodge Skin 
Warren C. Bonnin 
Floyd Bear Saves Life 
Philip G. Atkinson 
Reuben E. Redfeather 
Stanley C. Rogers 
Ole J. Johnson 
James L. Janis 
Waidron Frazier 
Stanley Goodbird 
Joseph Supangi 
William Keoke 
Louis LaBelle 
Arthur F. Sanders 
Norman Redthunder 
Jacob Wood 
Alexander DuMaree 
Robert Lee White 
Charles Under Baggage 
Elmer A. Feather 
William Bird Horse 
George D. LaPlant 
Levi Traversie 
Art Blue Arm 
Fred Colombe 
Winfield Loves War 
Joseph Hairychin 
Thomas Crow Necklace 
William Flying Horse 
Vincent Village Center 
Aaron G. Bettetyoun 
Louis Raymond Cottier 
Clement Crazy Thunder 
Matt Good Shield 
Jacob Herman, Jr.' 
James LaPointe, Jr. 
Francis Leon Killer 
Chester Maple 
Leroy No Neck 
Norman Portwood 
Earl J. Two Bulls 
Thomas Waters 
Chester Afraid of Bear 
George Ladeau 
Pierre Paul Lee 
Leonard Q. Smith 
Albert Chief Eagle 
Silos Running Eagle 
James L. DeMarsche 
Roy A. Brandon 
Earl J. Dion 
William J, Dion 
Lorenzo W. Collins 
Howard Brandon 



SOUTH DAKOTA 




Sioux (Yankton) 


U. S. A. 


Sioux (Rosebud) 


Africa 


Sioux (Rosebud) 


Peleliu 


Sioux (Rosebud) 


Germany 


Sioux (Yankton) 


Guam 


Sioux (Pine Ridge) 


France 


Sioux (Rosebud) 


France 


Sioux (Rosebud) 


France 


Sioux (Rosebud) 


Luzon 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Germany 


Sioux (Pine Ridge) 


Luxembourg 


Sioux (Cheyenne River) 


U. S- A 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Africa 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


France 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Italy 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


France 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


France 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Germany 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Europe 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Biak Island 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


U. S. A. 


Ir.Sioux (Pine Ridge) 


France 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Luzon 


Sioux (Standing Rock) 


Europe 



UX (Cheyenne River) 
us (Cheyenne River) 
:<ioun (Cheyenne River) 



Sioux 


(Rosebud) 


Luzon 


Sioux 


(Standing Rock) 


Europe 




(Standing Rock) 


Pacific 




(S 


andinq Rock) 


France 




(Standing Rock) 


Luzon 




(S 


anding Rock) 


Belgium 




(P 


ne Ridge) 


Holland 


Sioux 


(p 


ne Ridge) 


Leyte 




(P 


ne Ridge) 


Iwo Jima 






ne Ridge) 


New Guinea 


S'oux 


(P 


ne Ridge) 


Holland 


Sioux 


(P 


ne Ridge) 


Pacific 


Sioux 


(P 


ne Ridge) 


Germany 


Sioux 


(P 


ne Ridge) 


Pacific 




(P 


ne Ridge) 


Holland 


Sioux 


(P 


ne Ridge) 


English Channel 


Sioux 


;p 


ne Ridge) 


Leyte 


S.oux 


(P 


ne Ridge) 


Luzon 






ne Ridge) 


' U. S. A. 




<p 


ne Ridqe) 


U. S A. 


Sioux 


(Yankton) 


U. S. A. 


Sioux 


(Yankton) 


Pacific 




(Pine Ridge) 


U. S. A. 


SlDUX 


: ? 


ne Ridge) 


U. S. A. 




(Rosebud) 


Tarawa 


Sioux 


(Rc 


sebud) 


Guam 


S»cnux 


(Rosebud) 


Africa 


Sioux 


(Rosebud) 


France 




1 Rosebud) 


Germany 




1 Rosebud) 


Iwo Jima 



23 



William Dempsey Austin Sioux (Ping Ridge) 



Jesse Cuny 
Charles Swimmer 
Joe Kitto 
Lester Red Boy 
Vincent Fast Horse 



Sioux (Pine : Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine. Ridge) 
Chippewa 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 



Germany 

Germany 

Luzon 

Belgium 

Pacific 

Pacific 



Nelson Tonegates 
Ansel G. Wanzitz 



UTAH 



Ute 
Ute 



Germany 
France 



WASHINGTON 



Samuel C. Abrahamson Colville 



Charles Schulrz, Jr. 
Richard Wood 
Roy Knight 
John Bobb 
Melvin Ross 
Martin James 
John H. Kittles 
Herman John 
Norman Simmons 
Harry J. Cheholtz 



Richard J. Ackiey 
Matthew Johnson 
Joseph Graverette 
Robert Duffy 
Joseph Matchoma 
Donald J. Brisk 
Robert A. Cornelius 
Melvin Jordan 
Marvin Johns 
Joseph Ninham 
Joseph J. White 
Milan St. Germoine 
Thomas Soldier 
Arnold Tepiew 
Joseph Komanekin 
James C. Ford, Jr. 
Alpheus Decorah 
George N. Johnson 
Edmund Cornelius 



Lummi 
Clallam 
Swinomish 
Swinomish 
Muckteshoot 
Snoqualmle 
Lummi 
Nisqually 
Quinaielt 
Taholah 

WISCONSIN 

Chippewa 
Winnebago ' 

Chippewa 

Menominee 

Oneida 

Oneida 

Oneida 

Oneida 

Oneida 

Winnebago 

Chippewa 

Menominee 

Menominee ' 

Menominee 

Chippewa 

Winnebago 

Winnebago 

Oneida 



Manila 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Germany 

Italy 

Luzon 

Italy 

Belgium 

Okinawa 

Philippines 



Italy 

Europe 

Belgium 

France 

France 

Germany 

France 

France 

France 
France 
France 
Burma 
France 
Italy 



Claude Goggles 
Chester Arthur 
William Trosper 
John L. Brown 
Lee Wadda 
Laverne Wagon 
Richard Pogue 
Sidney Bush 
George Antelope 



Arapahoe 
Arapahoe 
Arapahoe 
Arapahoe 
Shoshone 
Shoshone 
Shoshone 
Shoshone 
Arapahoe 

24 



Leyte 
Belgium 



NAVAJO CODE TALKERS 



MT Sgt. Murrey Morder 
■<i- Corps Combat Correspondent 

iji'tmission of The Marine Corps Gazette 



Through the Solomons, in the Monanas, at 
Peleliu, two Jima, and almost every island 
where Marines have stormed ashore in this war, 
the Japanese hove heard a stianct: 4cmguage 
gurgling through the earphones of ttteir radio 
listening sets — a voice code which duties de- 
coding. 

To the linguistically keen ear h :;hows a 
trace of Asiatic origin, and a iot of what sounds 
like American double-talk. This stro-tae tongue, 
one of the most select in the world, ir. Navajo, 
embellished with improvised words and phras- 
es for military use. For three years i' has served 
the Marine Corps well for transmitting secret 
radio and telephone messages in combat. 

The dark-skinned, black-haired Navojo code 
tolker, huddled over a portable radio or field 
phone in a regimental, divisional or carps com- 
mand post, translating a message into Navajo 
os he reads it to his counterpart on the receiv- 
ing end miles away, has been a familiar sight 
in the Pacific battle zone. Permission to dis- 
close the work of these American Indians in 
marine uniform has just been grar.ied by the 
Marine Corps. 

Transmitting messages which the enemy 
cannot decode is a vital military focior in any 
engagement, especially where combat units 
are operating over a wide area in which com- 
munications must be maintained by radio. 
Throughout the history of warfote, military 
leaders have sought the perfect code— a code 
which the enemy could not break down, no 
matter how able his intelligence staff. 

Most codes are based on the codist's native 
language. If the language is a widely-used one, 
it also will be familiar to the enemy ond no 
matter how good your code may be the enemy 
eventually can master it. Navajo, however, is 
one of the world's "hidden" languages; it is 
termed "hidden," along with other Indian lang- 
uages, as no alphabet or other symbols of it 
exist in the original form. There are only about 
55,000 Navajos, all concentrated in one region, 



living on Government reservations and intense- 
ly clannish by nature, which has confined the 
tongue to its native area. 

Complicating the Navajo language, there 
are diaiect variations among the tribes, and in 
some cases even dialects within a tribe. 

Except for the Navajos themselves, only a 
handful of Americans speak the language. A,t 
the time the Marine Corps adopted Navajo as 
a voice code it was estimated that not more 
than 28 other persons, American scientists or 
missionaries who lived among the Navajos and 
studied the language for years, could speak 
Navajo fluently. In recent years, missionaries 
and the Interior Department's Bureau of In- 
dian Affairs have worked on the compilation 
of dictionaries and grammars of the language, 
based on its phonetics, to reduce it to writing. 
Even with these available it is said that a fluen- 
cy can be acquired from prepared texts only 
by persons who are highly educated in English 
and who have made a lengthy study of spoken 
and written Navajo. 

One of the reasons which prompted the 
Marine Corps to adopt Navajo, in preference 
to a variety of Indian tongues as used by the 
AEF in the last war, was a report that Navajos 
were the only Indian group in the United States 
not infested with German students during the 
20 years prior to 1 941 , when the Germans had 
been studying tribal dialects under the guise of 
art students, anthropologists, etc. It was 
learned that German and other foreign diplo- 
mats were among the chief customers of the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs for the purchase of 
publications dealing with Indian tribes, but it 
was decided that even if Navajo books were in 
enemy hands it would be virtually impossible 
for the enemy to gain a working knowledge of 
the language from that meager information. In 
addition, even ability to speak Navajo fluently 
would not necessarily enable the enemy to de- 
code a military message, for the Navajo dic- 
tionary does not list military terms, and words 



used tor "jeep," "emplacement," "battery," 
"radar," "antiaircraft," etc., have been im- 
provised by Navojos in the field. 

The adoption of code talkers by the Marine 
Corps stemmed from a request for Navajo com- 
municators by Ma}. Gen. Clayton B. Vogel, 
then Commanding General, Amphibious Corps, 
Pacific Fleet. A report submitted with his re- 
quest said a Navajo enlistment program would 
have full support of the Tribal Council at Win- 
dow Rock, Arizona, Navajo Reservation. 

Acting on this request the Marine Corps' 
Division of Plans and Policies in March 1942 
sent Col. Wethered Woodworth to moke a fur- 
ther report on the subject, and a test was made 
at the San Diego, Calif., Marine Base to deter- 
mine the practicality of Navajos os code talk- 
ers. 

The test revealed that the Navojos who vol- 
unteered for the experiment could transmit the 
messages given, although with some variation 
at the receiving end resulting from the lack of 
exact words to transmit specific military terms. 
For example, "Enemy is pressing attock on left 
flank" would come out "the enemy is attacking 
on the left." 

Proper schooling in military phraseology, it 
was believed, could correct this variation, and 
the following month the Marine Corps author- 
ized on initial enlistment of 30 Navajos to as- 
certain the value of their services. 

The enlistment order required that recruits 
meet full Marine Corps physical requirements 
and have a sufficient knowledge of English and 
Navajo to transmit combat messages in Nava- 
jo. The recruits were to receive regular Marine 
training, attend a Navajo school of the Fleet 
Marine Force Training Center, Camp Elliott, 
Calif., and then receive sufficient communica- 
tions training to enable them to handle their 
specially qualified talent on the battlefield. 

All the recruits spoke the same Navajo basi- 
cally, but there were certain word variations. 
In Navajo, the same word spoken with four dif- 
ferent inflections has four different meanings. 
The recruits had to agree on words which hod 
no shades of interpretation, for any variation 
in on important military message might be 
disastrous. As might be expected in any group 



of youths, tney were not equal in education or 
intelligence. Some of the military terms were 
very complex to the unschooled; afl had to be 
able to understand them thoroughly in order 
to translate them into their native language. 
Some were not easily adaptable to communica- 
tions work.- It was difficult in several instances 
for nan-Novajos to instruct the recruits in Ma- 
rine Corps activities; a few marine instructors 
were unable to cope with the typical Indian im- 
perturbability. 

On the other hand, many of the recruits were 
well-educated, intelligent and quick to learn. 
A number had worked for the Bureau of In- 
dian Affairs as clerks, and almost oil the Na- 
vajos had The highly developed Indian sensory 
perceptions. 

There were some recruits like PFC Wilsie 
H. Bitsie, whose father is district supervisor of 
the Mexican Springs, N. Mex., Navajo District. 
Bitsie became an instructor in the Navajo 
School at Camp Elliott for a time, and helped 
work out the much needed military terms. He 
went on to join the marine Raiders and at New 
Georgia his Navajo ability helped the Raiders 
maintain contact with the Army command at 
Munda while the marines knocked out Jap- 
anese outposts in the jungle to the north. 

Other code talkers went with the Third Ma- 
rine Division and the Raiders to Bougainville. 
There some manned distant outposts, main- 
taining contact in Navajo by radio. It was found 
best to have close friends work together in 
teams of two, for they could perfect their code 
talk by personal contact. 

The men in their units learned that in addi- 
tion to their language ability the Navajos also 
could be good marines. They could do their 
share of fighting and they made good scouts 
and messengers. 

There had been concern in some quarters 
that dark-skinned Navajos might be mistaken 
for Japs. In the latter doys of the Guadalcanal 
action one Army unit did pick up a Navajo 
communicator cn the coastal road and mes- 
saged the marine command: "We have cap- 
tured a Jap in marine clothing with marine 
identification tags." A marine officer was start- 
led to find the prisoner was a Navajo, who was 



27 



only bored by the proceedings. 

The code talkers went on into more cam- 
paigns, proving their ability, and the Navajo 
quota in the Marine Corps rose from 30 to 
420. At their TBXs they transmitted opera- 
tional orders which helped us advance from 
the Solomons to Okinawa. 

It was found that the Navajos are not neces- 
sary at levels lower than battalions. For mes- 
scges between battalions and companies the 
extra security is not required and speed is the 
paramount issue. 

The II! Amphibious Corps reported that the 
use of the talkers during the Guam and Peleliu 
operations "was considered indispensable for 
the rapid transmission of classified dispatches. 
Enciphering and deciphering time would have 
prevented vital operational information from 
being dispatched or delivered to staff sections 
with any degree of speed." 

At Iwo Jima, Navajos transmitted messages 
from the beach to division and Corps com- 
mands afloat early on D-day, and ofter the di- 
vision commands came ashore, from division 
ashore to Corps afloat. 

Lost April authority wos granted to establish 
a re-troining course for Navajos at FMFPoc. 
Under this plan, five code talkers are taken 
from each division to attend an intensive 21- 
day course which gives emphasis to plane types, 



ship types, printing and message writing, and 
message transmission. These Navajos then re- 
turn to their divisions to instruct the remaining 
men. It is emphasized that code talkers work 
out successfully only where interest is shown 
by the command and where training continues 
between operations. 

As for the Navajos themselves, they prob- 
ably are not any more enthusiastic about the 
concentrated schooling than most young ma- 
rines would be about schooling, for they are 
amused at being regarded os different from 
other marines. 

On rare occasions, though, they do lapse in- 
to some typical Indian gyrations. Ernie Pyle, in 
one of his last dispatches from Okinawa, de- 
scribed how the First Division's Navajos had 
put on a ceremonial dance before leaving for 
Okinawa. In the ceremony, they asked the gods 
to sap the strength of the Japanese in the as- 
sault. 

According to a later report, when the First 
Division met the strong opposition in the south 
of Okinawa, one marine turned to a Navajo 
code talker and said, 

"O.K., Yazzey, what about your little cere- 
mony? What do you call this?" 

"This is different," answered the Navajo 
with a smile. "We prayed only for an easy land- 
ing." 



INDIANS FOUGHT ON IWO JIMA 



Many Indians participated in the famous ac- 
tion on Iwo Jima. The most celebrated of 
these is Pfc. Ira H. Hayes, a full-blood Pima 
from Bapchule, Arizona, one of three survivors 
of the historic incident on Mount Suribachi, 
when six Marines raised the flag on the sum- 
mit of the volcano, under heavy enemy fire. 
He served on Iwo Jima for 36 days and come 
awoy unwounded. Previously he had fought 
at Vella La Vella and Bougainville. Because 
of the nation-wide attention won by Rosen- 
thal's dramatic photogroph of the flog-roising, 
symbol and expression of the invincible Amer- 
ican spirit, Hayes and his two comrades, Phar- 
macist's Mate John Bradley ond Pfc. Rene A. 
Gagnon, were brought back to this country to 
travel extensively in support of the Seventh 
War Loan. In the photograph on the opposite 
page, Hayes is pointing out his position in the 
flag-raising patrol. 

On May 1st, more than 1000 Indians of the 
Pima tribe gathered at Bopchule to pay honor 
to their fellow tribesman and to celebrate his 
safe return. A barbecue feost, under a can- 
opy of brush, was followed by an impressive 
religious ceremony, with prayers led by Pro- 
testant and Catholic missionaries and songs by 
several church choirs. Mrs. Hoyes, Ira's moth- 
er, asked two of the girl soloists to sing the 
hymn, "He Will Deliver." 

The National Congress of American Indians 
gove a luncheon in honor of Hayes and his 
comrades in Chicago on May 19, at which a 
brief speech by Hayes was broadcast. At this 
meeting he was made first commander of the 
American Indian Veterans' Association. Phar- 
macist's Mate Bradley stated in on interview 
that Hayes was "a marked man on the island 
because of his cool level-headedness and ef- 
ficiency." He refused to be leader of a pla- 
toon, according to Bradley, because, as he ex- 
plained, "I'd have to tell other men to go and 



get killed, and I'd rather do it myself." When 
he and the two others were ordered home to 
take part in the War Loan campaign, Hoyes 
was reluctant to leave his fighting comrades, 
and, after a few weeks in the United States, 
requested that he be returned to overseas duty, 
where he f eft he would be of greater value to 
his country. 

A second Indian, Louis C. Charto, Flathead, 
from Montana, climbed Mount Suribachi with 
a Marine patrol shortly after the flag was 
raised on its summit. He was killed in action 
not long afterward, fighting to keep Ihe Stars 
and Stripes on the mountain. Louis was the 
grandson of Chief Chorio of Nez Perce war 
fome, a leader who maintained his friendship 
with the white people throughout those try- 
ing times. 

Among Indians listed as wounded on the is- 
land are Pfc. Ray Flood, Sioux, from Pine 
Ridge; Verne Ponzo, Shoshone, Fort Hall; Or- 
ville Goss, Sidney Brown, Jr. ond Richard J. 
Brown, Blackfeet; Robert Spahe, Jicarilla Apa- 
che; Thomas Chapman, Jr., Pawnee, and Will- 
iam M. Fletcher, Cheyenne, from Oklahoma; 
Joseph R. Johnson, Papago, Arizona; Pfc. 
Glenn Wasson gnd Pfc. Clarence L. Chavez, 
Paiute, Nevada; and Richard Burson, Ute, from 
Utah. Killed were Pvt. Howard Brandon, Rose- 
bud Sioux; Pfc. Clement Crazy Thunder, Pine 
Ridge Sioux, whose photograph appeared in the 
May-June 1943 issue of Indians at Work; Pfc. 
Adam West Driver, Cherokee, from North Car- 
olina; Pvt. Eugene Lewis, Yurok, California; 
and Paul Kinlahcheeny, Navajo. Leland Cha- 
vez, S 1-c, Paiute, Nevada, is reported missing 
in action. 

Sgt. Warren Sonkey, Arapaho, from El Reno, 
Oklahoma, was one of the crew which first 
knocked out a Japanese tonk on Iwo Jimo. 



Pfc. Ira H. Hayes 



Officio! Marine Corps Photo 



Two Flathead Indian brothers, Daniel and 
John Moss, Marines from Ariee, Montana, met 
unexpectedly on Iwo Jima, and both came 
safely through the fighting. Their father, 
Henry Moss, served with the Marines in the 
First World War. 

One of four survivors of his company is Pvt. 
Clifford Chebahtoh, Comanche, of Anadarko, 



Oklahoma. Pvt. Chebahtah was injured on 
Iwo Jima and was granted a two weeks' fur- 
lough at home. 

"I was lying in a foxhole when I saw our 
boys raise the flag on the top of the volcanic 
mountain of Suribochi, and cold shivers ran 
down my spine," he said. 



29 



WOUNDED IN ACTION 

ARIZONA 



Paul Hendricks 


Papago 


Germany 


Manuel Kisto 


Papago 


Germany 


Fernando Lopez 


Papago 


Europe 


Nelson Lopez 


Papago 


Belgium 


Nolia Lopez 


Papago 


Belgium 


Hanson Norris 


Papago 


France 


Raymond Norris 


Papago 


Germany 


Louis Ortegas 


Papago 


France 


Ralph Patricio 


Papago 


Holland 


Ignacio B. Santos 


Papago 


France 


Rove 1 to Siquieros 


Papago 


Germany 


Victor B. Stevens 


Papago 


Germany 


Jose V. Wilson 


Papago 


Italy 


Patrick J. Franko 


Papago 




Joseph R, Johnson 


Papago 


Iwo Jima 


Burton A. Narcho 


Popago 


Guam 


Manuel T. Lucas 


Papago 


Germany 


Andrew J. Mendez 


Papago 


Germany 


Augustine Chico 


Papago 


New Guinea 


Francisco S. Jose 


Papago 


New Britain 


Henry Harvey 


Papago 


New Britain 


Alonzo Enos 


Pima 


New Guinea 


Jose Patricio 


Popago 


Pacific 


Robert Perry Reede 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Germany 


George Smith 


Apache (Son Carlos) 


New Guinea 


Laurie Tungovia 


Hopi 


Italy 


Andrew Nutimo 


Hopi 


Harry Chinn 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Luxembourg 


Roger Dickson 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Belgium 


George Stevens 


Apache (San Carlos) 




Clark Tungovia 


Hopi 


Luzon 


Louis M. Valdez 


Popago 


France 


William Brown 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Germany 


Chester Buck 


Apache (San Corlos) 


Luzon 


Joe Bush 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Germany 


David Miles 


Apache (San Carlos) 


France 


Patrick Morgan 


Apache (San Carlos) 


North Africa 


Stanton Norman 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Belgium 


George Patten 


Apache (San Carlos) 


Luzon 


Womack Pavotea 


Hopi 


Germany 


Sylvester Mahone 


Hualapai 


France 


WaMace Querta 


Hualapai 


Saipan 




CALIFORNIA 




Shuman Shaw 


Paiute 


Europe 


Benjamin D. Oscar 


Yurok 


Holland 


Walter Campbell 


Porno 


France 


Samuel Powvall 


Mission 


Germany 


William 1. Reed 


Yurok 


Pacific 


Kenneth Frank 


Yurok 


Pacific 


Harvey McCardie 


Hoopa 




Cornelius Morehead 


Hoopa (Smith River) 




Eldred Norris 


Yurok-Hoopa 




Albert Richards, Jr. 


Hoopa (Ee! River) 


U. S. A. 


Fred W, Scott 


Hoopa 




Albert Bartow 


Klamath 





30 



Clarence Bennett 
Leon Chose 
Shan Davis 
Vernon Davis 
Wilfred Fsrris 
Benonie Harris 
Adolph Brown 
Martin Brown 
Theodore Chutnicut 
William Coleman 
Lester Elliott 
Pablo Largo 
Frank Laws 
Thomas Laws 
Pat Leo 
Peter Leo 
Donald Jamieson 
Marcus Paipa 
Antonio Ento 
Frank Subish 
Kenneth Nombrie 
Florian Lyons 
Carmef Valenzuela 
Senon Arenas 

Anthony Burch 
Allen Carel 
John Werifo 
Curtis Toledo 
Raymond Lopez 

Lawrence Bagley 
Eldon Blackhawk 
Waimmie Chedahap 
Kenneth Cosgrove 
Roger E. Galloway 
Franklin Hootchew 
Orlin Judson 
Kenneth Kutch 
Herbert LeCloir 
Thomas LoVatta 
Loyfon Littlejohn 
Steve Perdash 
Verne Panza 
John B. Riley 
Jarvis Roubidoux 

Milton LoClair 
James Kagmega (Kegg) 
Orlando P. Green 
Elwin Shopteese 
Edward Rice 

Abe! John 
Iro B. John 
Solomon Batiste 
Albert Williams 
Newton Williams 
Gilbert Abbey 



Hoopa (Salmon River) 

Klamath -Hoopa 

Klomath Italy 

Klamath-Hoopa ' 

Klamath 



Mission (Baron Long) 


Gei many 


Mission (Baron Long) 


Germany 


Mission (Los Coyotes) 


Pacific 


Mission (Campo) 


Germany 


Mission (Manzanita) 


Gei many 


Mission (Campo) 


Italy 


Mission (Morongo) 


Pacific 


Mission (Morongo) 


Pacific 


Mission (Santa Ysabel) 


Germany 


Mission (Santa Ysabel) 


Germany 


Mission (Rincon) 


Okinawa 


Mission (Santa Ysobel) 


Pacific 


Mission (Campo) 


Italy 


Mission (Mesa Grande) 


Germany 


Torres-Martinez 


Italy 


Mission (Pola) 


Germany 


Mission (Soboba) 


Pacific 


Mission (Cahuilla) 


Germany 


COLORADO 




Ute 


Belgium 


Ute 


Holland 


Navajo 


Pacific 


Navajo 


Pacific 


Navajo 


Pacific 


IDAHO 




Shoshone 


Europe 


Shoshone 


Europe 


Shoshone-Bannock 


Europe 


Shoshone-Bannock 


Europe 


Shoshone 


Europe 


Shoshone-Bannock 


Europe 


Sioux 


Europe 


Shoshone-Bannock 


Pacific 


Shoshone 


Europe 


Shoshone 


Europe 


Bannock 


Europe 


Shoshone 


Europe 


Shoshone 


Iwo Jima 


Shoshone 


Pacific 


Shoshone 


Pacific 


KANSAS 




Potawatomi 


France 


Potawatomi 


France 




Ge rmany 


Potawatomi 


France 


Potawatomi 


Pacific 


LOUISIANA 




Coushatta 


Pacific 


Coushatta 


Pacific 


Coushatta 


Pacific 


Coushatta 


Europe 


Coushatta 


Europe 


Coushatta 


Pacific 


31 





Irving J. Theodore 
Thurlow McClellan 



Daniel Bellanger 
John Northrup 
Eugene Johnson 
Jimmie Lussier 
Harry Fairbanks 
William Jourdain 
Maurice Kelley 
Stanley Nordwall 
Johnson Roy 
Simon Desjarlait 
Defmar Needhom 
George L. Mason 
Wallace D. Stewart 
William Good 
Raymond F. Roberts 
Robert King 
Horry Smith 
Frank N. Lajeunesse 
Frank A. Toufloff 
George H. Trombley 
Edward George Burns 
Herbert Beaulieu 
Albert Whitecloud 
Louis Livingston 
John Davis 
James Deschomps 
Mark Naganufa 
Jeffrey Duhaime 
Stephen Zimmerman 
Lloyd Paro 
Andrew Amyotte 
William Amyotte 
Eugene Amyotte 
Burdette Shearer 
Louis Dunn 
Phillip Roy 
Everett Ojibwoy 
Eugene Savage 
Gerald Sheehy 
Clifford Danielson 
Robert Wendling 
Eugene Howes 
William Howes 



Frank Billy 
Bethany Morris 
Hudson Tubby 
Willie Thompson 
Sidney Wilson 
J. C. Willis 
John Lee Gibson 



MICHIGAN 




Saginaw 


pacific 


Ottawa-Chippewa 


Palous 


MINNESOTA 




Chippewa 


France 


Chippewa 


Fronce 


Chippewa 


Cassino 


Chippewa 


France 


Chippewa 


Chippewa 




Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 




Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Belgium 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Chippewa 


Fronce 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


F ranee 


Chippewa 


France 


Chippewa 


France 


Chippewa 


Normandy 


Chippewa 


Pacific 


Chippewa 


Luzon 


Chippewa 


Guam 


Chippewo 


Germany 


Chippewa 


New Guinea 


Chippewa 


Leyte 


Chippewa 


France 


Chippewa 


Fronce 


Chippewa 




Chippewa 


Leyte 


Chippewa 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 




Chippewa 




Chippewa 




Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Luzon 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Italy 


Chippewa 


Italy 


Chippewa 


Germany 


Chippewa 


Italy 


Chippewa 


Pacific 



MISSISSIPPI 

Choctaw Pacific 

Choctaw Europe 

Choctaw Europe 

Choctaw Europe 

Choctaw Europe 

Choctaw Mediterranean 

Choctaw Europe 
32 



MONTANA 



Max Smoll 


Cheyenne 




Edward Sam Bixby 


Cheyenne 




Dale Spang 


Cheyenne 




Jasper Tallwhiteman 


Cheyenne 




Ben Bearchum 


Cheyenne 




Robert Bigback 


Cheyenne 




Russell Fisher 


Cheyenne 




Elmore Limberhand 


Cheyenne 




Arthur Youngbear 


Cheyenne 




George Nequette 


Blackfeet 


Europe 


John McKay 


Blackfeet 


Italy 


Frank Baker 


Blackfeet 


Italy 


John A. Gobert 


Blackfeet 


Leyte 


Clarence Cadotte 


Blackfeet 


Europe 


Horry Schildt 


Blackfeet 


Pacific 


Orville Goss 


Blackfeet 


Iwo Jima 


Sidney Brown, Jr 


Blackfeet 


Iwo Jima 


Stanley Bird 


Blackfeet 


Philippines 


Eugene Heavyrunner 


Blackfeet 


Philippines 


Samuel Spottedeagle 


Blackfeet 


Philippines 


Emil Beorchild 


Blackfeet 




Richard J. Brown 


Blackfeet 


Iwo Jima 


Warren Oliver Clark 


Flathead 


Pacific 


Henry Lozeau 


Flathead 


Pacific 


Peter Stiffarm 


Gros Ventre 


France 


Calvin Bigby 


Assiniboine 


Germany 


Rufus Bradley 


Gros Ventre 


Pacific 


August Decelles, Jr. 


Gros Ventre 


Pacific 


Charles Decelles 


Gros Ventre 


Iwo Jima 


Billie Snell 


Assiniboine 


Saipan 


Thomas Joseph Bell 


Gros Ventre 


Pacific 


Bert Larsen 


Gros Ventre 


France 


Thomas Ball 


Assiniboine 


Italy 




NEBRASKA 




El wood Harden 


Winnebago 


France 




NEVADA 




Dickson Hooper 


Shoshone 


Italy 


Carl Dick 


Shoshone 


Germany 


Raymond Blackhat 


Shoshone 


Germany 


Pacheco Gibson 


Shoshone 






NEW /V\tAI<_U 




Hiram R. Brown 


Acoma Pueblo 




Francis J. Johnson 


Acoma Pueblo 




Manuel R. Cata 


San Juan Pueblo 




Regorio Colabaza 


Santo Domingo Pueblo 




Dempsey Chopito 


Zuni 




Arsenio Sanchez 






Cyrus Mahkee 


Zuni 


Guam 


Jose B. Voldez 


Isleta Pueblo 




Jose P. Lucero 


Jemez Pueblo 




James Mitchell 


Navajo 


France 


Richard H , Marmon 


Lcguno Pueblo 


Germany 


Ted Shashewannie 


Zuni 


James D. Sice 


Laguna Pueblo 




William J. Naranjo 


Navajo 


Sicily 


Ned Arviso 




Marianas 




33 





Walter H. Kokie 
Frank Romero 
Ignacio TrujMlo 
Fred Zuni 
John Kayate 
Frank Lujan 
Clifford Ersirty 
Nevin H. Eckerman 
Sefferino Juancho 
David W. Tsosie 
Sam P. Poplano 
Steve Chee 
Joe Chovez 
Manuel Lamy 
Tommy Maria 
Joe Pacheco 
Carlos Lowsayotee 
Ben D. Laote 
Joe Leekity 
Jose Jaramitlo 
Jose P. Cordova 
Wayne Dez 
Andres Chino 
Joe A. Sanchez 
Jimmy Begay 
Walter Balatchu 
Charlie Cochucha 
David Muniz 
Robert Spahe 
David Velarde 
Vicenti Venena 
Thomas Vigil 
Manuel Holcomb 
Bennie R. Yazzie 
Pete Candelario 
Jose L. Zuni 
Arthur E. Tsyitee 
Fedelino Sanchez 
Ventura S. Howeya 
Clemente Fragua 
Phillip L. Martinez 
Monico M. Gorcia 
Juan A. Joramillo 
James S. Ortiz 
Joseph Aragon 
Stewart Batala 
Joseph R. Kowemecewa 
Lawrence Archuleta 
Juan D. Pino 
Ivan C. Hatti 
Dan Simplicio 
Simon Wollace 
Duncan Suitza 
Telesfor Tsethlika 
Frank Trujillo 
Ben House 



Laguna Pueblo 
Taos 

Jemez Pueblo 
Islera Pueblo 
Laguna Pueblo 
Taos 
Nova jo 

Laguna Pueblo 
Islera Pueblo 
Navajo 
Zuni 
Navajo 

Acoma Pueblo 
Zuni 

Laguna Pueblo 

Sonto Domingo Pueblo 

Zuni 

Zuni 

Zuni 

Isleta Pueblo 
Toos 
Novo jo 

Acoma Pueblo 
San Felipe Pueblo 
Navajo 

Apache (Mescolero) 
Apache (Jicorilla) 
Apache (Jicarilla) 
Apache (Jicarilla) 
Apache Uicarilla) 
Apoche (Jicarilla) 
Apache (Jicarilla) 
Santa Clara Pueblo 
Navajo 

San Felipe Pueblo 
Isleta Pueblo 
Zuni 

Santa Ana Pueblo 
Acoma Pueblo 
Jemez Pueblo 
Acoma Pueblo 
Acoma Pueblo 
Isleta Pueblo 
San Juan Pueblo 
Laguna Pueblo 
Laguna Pueblo 
Laguna Pueblo 
San Juon Pueblo 
Zia Pueblo 
Zuni 
Zuni 
Zuni 
Zuni 
Zuni 

Taos Pueblo 
Navajo 



Europe 
Europe 
Europe 
Europe 
Europe 

Attu, Germany 

Europe 

Saipan 

France 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Pacific 

Pacific 

Europe 

Europe 

Itoly 

Belgium 

Belgium 

Europe 

Iwo Jima 

Europe 

Europe 

Bougainville 

Germany 

Germany 

Europe 

Europe 

Austria 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Philippines 

Philippines 

Pacific 
Europe 
Europe 
Europe 
Europe 
Europe 
Pacific 
Europe 
Europe 
Pacific 
Pacific 



34 



Arthur Lazore 
Leonard Beaubien 
Francis Billings 
William Cook 
Stonley Connors 
Louis Martin 
Wilford Smith 
Orlando Scorgg 
Warren Spring 
Eugene Reuben 
Cortland Luna 
Morvin Crouse 
Randall Poodry 
Edward Black 
Vincent Printup 
Harrison Henry 
William Mt. Pleasant 
Frederick Schanondoah 
Chapman Schanandoah 
Clifford Crouse 
Delbert Crowe 
Carl Johnson 
Willard Jacobs 
Donald Black 
Wilbur Shongo 
Merle Warner 

Russell F. Deserly 
Albert Archambault 
Herbert Buffalo Boy 
Lawrence Bearsheart 
Patrick Blackcloud 
Leslie Shields 
Sidney Cottonwood 
Joe Ramsay 
Garfield Antelope 
Gilbert Goodiron 
George Goodwood 

Rudolph Allen 
Oland Kemble 
Levi Horsechief 
Marcellus Choteau 
Gale New Moon 
Lawrence Good Fox, Jr. 
James Armstrong, Jr. 
Francis Bates 
Harold S. Beard 
Rubin Bent 
Oliver Black 
Richard Boynton, Jr. 
Roy Bullcoming 
Richard Curtis, Jr. 
William M. Fletcher 
Paul Goodbear 
John Greoney, Jr. 
Charles F. Gurrier 



NEW YORK 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 
Mohawk 

Tonawanda-Seneca 
Tonowanda-Seneca 
Tonowanda-Seneca 
Tonawanda-Seneca 
Tonawanda-Seneca 
Onondaga 
Tonawanda-Seneca 
Onondaga 
Tuscarora 
Tuscarora 
Tuscarora 
Onondaga 
Onondaga 
Seneca 
Seneca 
Seneca 
Seneca 
Seneca 
Seneca 
Seneca 
NORTH DAKOTA 
Arikaro 

Sioux (Stonding Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock] 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
OKLAHOMA 
Tonkawa 
Ponca 
Pawnee 
Kaw 
Ponca 
Pawnee 

Caddo-Cheyenne 
Arapaho 

Cheyenne-Arapaho 
Quapaw-Cheyenne 
Cheyenne 
Cheyenne-Arapaho 
Cheyenne 
Cheyenne 
Cheyenne 
Cheyenne 
Cheyenne 
Sioux-Cheyenne 
35 



France 
France 
France 
Polaus 
France 
Europe 

France 



Tunis 
France 



Italy 

Atlantic 

France 

Luzon 

Normandy 

Luzon 

Brazil 

Pacific 

Italy 

France 

Anzio 

Holland 

Normandy 

Betio Island 

Atlantic 

Germany 

Germany 

Leyte 

Italy 

Europe 

Europe 

France 

Europe 

Philippines 

Europe 

Europe 

Pacific 

Europe 

Aleutians 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Mediterranean 
Iwo Jima 
Europe 
Pacific 
Pacific 



Warren L Hawk 
James Holland, Jr. 
Darwin Lone Elk 
Henry Mann 
Edward B. Mule 
Roy Night Walking 
Lee Old Camp, Jr. 
Willie Orange 
William F. Pawnee 
David Penn 
Philip Strongwolf 
Elmer C. Surveyor 
George Swallow 
Everett Sweezy 
William Tailbird, Jr. 
Harvey West 
Solus B. Lewis 
Isaac McCurtain 
Luther King 
Richmond J. Larney 
Houston Palmer 
Jacob Fish 
Chester Underwood 
Henry N. Greenwood 
Tom Fixico 
Joe Fixico 
John P. Lowe 
Jack Bruner 
Danny Marshal I 
Munzie Barnett 
Sampson Harjo 
Martin Mitchell 
William M. Beaver 
Sam McCann 
Daniel Phillips, Jr. 
Franklin Gritts 
Cornelius L. Wakolee 
Jack Montgomery 
Calvin Dailey 
Robert Hoag 
Robert L. Templeron 
Jesse B, Thompson 
James R. Hattensty 
Solomon Roberts 
Esra H. Wallace 
J. D. Walker 
Miller Yahola 
Johnson Davis 
Amos Davis 
Harding Big Bow 
Edward M. Rodgers 
Rudolph Akoneto, Jr. 
Raymond Arkeketa 
Kenneth Aunquoe 
Hubert Dennis Beaver 
Samuel W. Chaat 
Clifford Chebahtah 
Edward Clark 
Leonard Cozad 



Cheyenne 


Kiska 


Arapaho 


Pacific 


Cheyenne 


Pacific 


Cheyenne 


Holland 


Cheyenne 




Cheyenne 


Europe 


Cheyenne-Arapaho 


Pacific 


Cheyenne 


Pacific 


Arapaho 




Cheyenne 


Europe 


Cheyenne 


Europe 


Cheyenne 


Europe 


Cheyenne 


Europe 


Arapaho-Oneido 


Europe 


Cheyenne 


Europe 


Cheyenne 


Pacific 




Europe 


Choctaw 


Europe 


Choctaw 


Sicily 


Seminole 






AnziQ 6 


Five Civilized Tribes 


Huertgen Forest 


Five Civilized Tribes 


Germany 


Chickasaw 


Italy 




Sicily, Italy 


Creek 


France 




Anzio, France 


Creek 


Italy 


Creek 


France, Italy 


Creek 


Germany 


Creek 




Creek 


Pacific 


Creek 




Choctaw 


France 




France 


Cherokee 


Pacific 


Potawatomi 


Italy 


Cherokee 


Italy 


Otoe 




Caddo-Delaware 


Italy 


Pawnee 


Leyte 


Choctaw 


Choctaw 


Italy 


Choctaw 


Germany 


Choctaw 


Seminole 


Europe 


Seminole 


Europe 


Seminole 


Belgium 


Seminole 






Germany 


Quapaw 


Kwa,alein 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Pacific 


Kiowa 


Pacific 


Delaware-Shawnee 


Pacific 


Comanche 


Europe 


Comanche 


Iwo Jima 


Comanche 




Kiowa 


Europe 



36 



Hugh Doyebi 
Noah Horsechief 
Lamont Howry 
Rickey Kaulaity 
Samuel Koulay 
William Kaulay 
Robert Komesaraddle 
Wayne L Miller 
Wilson B. Palmer 
Wilbur Parker 
Frederick E, Parton 
Pascal C. Poolaw 
Melvin G. Queton 
Virgil Queton 
Winston Rose 
Don Shemayme 
Claude Shirley 
Chester Silverhorn 
Reuben Topaum 
Kent C. Ware 
Press ley Ware 
Robert Yeahpau 
Raymond Woodard 
Thomas Chapman, Jr. 
Samuel Battiest 
Samuel Marshall 
Robert H. Colbert, Jr. 
Andrew Roberts 
Jacob Moses 
Jesse Howell 
James G. Cleghorn 
Edison DeRoin 
Calvin Arkeketa 
Jimmy Black 
Ernest Black 
Jonas Hartico 
Rufus Jeans 
Bill Pipestem 
Pershing White 
Theodore Buffalo 
Ernest J. Kekahbah 
Wiliiarn A. Harris, Jr. 

John Sampson 
Edson Chiloquin 
Roland Jockson i 
LeRoy A. Moore 
Marvin J. Walker 
John Jackson, Jr. 

Theodore Taylor 
Ralph Gullickson 
Warren Gullickson 
Wood row Keeble 
Francis Adams 
Joseph Gray 
Leroy Heminger 
Nathan Wilson 



Kiowa 


Bastogne 


Wichita 




Comanche 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Aleutians 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Pacific 


Wichita 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Tarawa 


Comanche 




Caddo 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Pacific 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Wichita 




Caddo 


Europe 


Caddo 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Kiowa 


Europe 


Kiowa , 


Europe 


Kiowa 




Kiowa 


Europe 


Apache 


Europe 


Pawnee 


Iwo Jima 


Choctaw 


Germany 


Creek 


Europe 


Creek 


Europe 


Pawnee 


Europe 


Pownee 


Europe 


Pawnee 


U. S. A. 


Otoe 




Otoe 


Africa 


Otoe 


Europe 


Otoe 


Otoe 




Otoe 




Otoe 




Otoe 




Otoe 




Otoe 


Italy 


Kaw 


Italy 


Pawnee 


Italy, Ger 


OREGON 




Cayuse-Umatilla 


France 


Klamath-Modoc 




Klomath-Paiute 








Kla^oth ^ 0C ' OC 




Klamath 




bUU 1 H DAKO 1 A 




Sioux (Flandreau) 


New Guin 


Sioux (Flandreau) 


Aachen 


Sioux (Flandreau) 


Leyte 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


North Afr 






Sioux (Sisseton) 


Germany 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


France 


Sioux (Sisseton) 


Germany 


37 





Floyd P. Deegan Sioux (Sisseton) 

Herman Thompson Sioux (Sisseton) 

Louis M. DeCoteau Sioux (Sisseton) 

Louis Provost Omaha 
Leo Shot With Two Arrows Sioux (Rosebud) 



Enoch Bald Eagle 

Edward Eagle Boy 

Philip Elk Head 

Joe Paul Fourbear 

Joe Gray 

Robert C. Hole 

James Hand Boy 

Charles Hiatt 

Lawrence Horn 

Clifford Iron Moccasin 

Charles Kessler 

George Knife 

Charles Lafferty 

Levi LeBeau 

Vincent J. LeBeau 

Louis LeCompte 

Roy R. Smith 

Sampson One Skunk 

Ziebach Thompson 

Cecil Curley 

Garnet Black Bear 

Robert Manley 

Aloysius A. Fielder 

Earl Kessler 

Douglas Collins 

Philip LaBlanc 

Floyd Jackson 

Edwin Demery 

Johnson Twohearts 

Wo Iter Tiger 

Joseph Lawrence 

Ambrose Antelope 

John Bearking 

Fronk Vermillion 

William Marshall 

Abraham Long Chase 

Sidney Eagle Shield 
Alex Village Center 

Peter Taken Alive 
Ambrose Dog Eagle 
Joseph Flying Bye 
Joseph Cadotte 
Colvin Flying Bye 
Joseph Angel 
John Bearnose 
Carl C. Bettelyoun 
Everett Bettelyoun 
Joseph Bettelyoun 
Waldron Bettelyoun 
Henry Black Elk 
Moses Blindman 
Ernest Blue Legs 
Owen Brings 
Carl Broken Rope 



Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R. 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne Ri 
Sioux (Cheyenne R. 
Sioux (Cheyenne R 
Sioux (Rosebud) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Stonding Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
5ioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Standing Rock) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Bioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
Sioux (Pine Ridge) 
38 



Palaus 

Philippines 

Germany 

Belgium 

Germany 



Cologne 

Germany 

Africa 

Philippines 

Europe 

Germany 

Pacific 

Italy 

Germany 

At sea 

Philippines 

Pacific 

Pacific 

Anzio 

Europe 

Europe 

Germany 

Pacific 

Philippines 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

France 

France 

Pacific 

Burma 

France 

Italy 



Vance Broken Rope Sioux (Pine Ridge) Belgium 

Lanert Brown Eyes Sioux {Pine Ridge) France 

Morris Bull Bear Sioux (Pine Ridge) Belgium 

Moses Builman Sioux- {Pine Ridge) France 

Leo F. Cottier Sioux (Pine Ridge) Belgium 

Adolph Eagle Louse Sioux (Pine Ridge) Philippines 

Edison Fire Thunder Sioux (Pine Ridge) Pacific 

Roy Flood Sioux (Pine Ridge) Iwo Jima 

Blair Gray Grass Sioux (Pine Ridge) Belgium 

Adam Gay Sioux (Pine Ridge) Italy 

Joshua Gay Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Alex Hernandez Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Alphonso Hernandez Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Vincent Hunts Horses Sioux {Pine Ridge) Germany 

Theodore Iron Teeth Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Norman Jonis Sioux {Pine Ridge) Burma 

Richard Janis Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Douglas Larabee Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Aloysius Little WhitemanSioux (Pine Ridge) Italy 

Walter Martinez Sioux (Pine Ridge) Luxembourg 

Floyd Merrival Sioux (Pine Ridge) Italy 

Chester Mills Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Peter Nelson Sioux (Pine Ridge) Belgium 

Ernest Peck Sioux {Pine Ridge) France 

Clarence Pumpkin Seed Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Stephen Red Bow Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Homer Red Eyes Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Stanley Red Wing Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Floyd Russell Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Collins Sharpfish Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Hobert Shot to Pieces Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Ellis Shoulder Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Martin Slow Bear Sioux (Pine Ridge) Italy 

Loyal E. Stover Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Edward Spotted Bear Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Joseph Tapio Sioux (Pine Ridge) Atlantic 

Leroy Tenfingers Sioux (Pine Ridge) Pacific 

Theodore Tibbetts Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Calvin J. Tyon Sioux (Pine Ridge) Luzon 

Roy White Butterfly Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Leonard White Bull Sioux (Pine Ridge) Italy 

Levi Yellow Boy Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Eugene Young Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Walter Bossingham S ioux (Rosebud) Europe 

Daniel L. Bordeaux Si oux (Rosebud) Europe 

Marvin Thin Elk Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

Albert Wright Sioux (Rosebud) Pacific 

Thomas Yellow Boy Sioux (Pine Ridge) Belgium 

Guy White Horse Sioux (Rosebud) 

Leonard Bordeaux Sioux (Rosebud) Pacific 

Gobe Neiss Sioux {Rosebud) Aleutians 

Clarence Cordry Sioux (Rosebud) Pacific 

Jerome White Horse Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

Claude DeCory Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

Laverne Jackson Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Eugene E. Roubideoux Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Michael Bordeaux Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Elmer Brandon Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Wilbur Blacksmith Sioux (Rosebud) Peleliu 
39 



George F. Flommond Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

William C. Gunhammer Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

Joseph J. Peneaux Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

William Lamberf Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Hubert C. McCloskey Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Stephen Moccasin Sioux (Rosebud) Belgium 

Horoid Whiting Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

Barney Peoples Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Antoine C. Yellow Robe Sioux (Rosebud) Pacific 

Richard Larvie Sioux (Rosebud) 

Floyd LaPointe Sioux (Rosebud) France 

Gilbert Crow Eagle Sioux (Rosebud) Belgium 

Herbert DeCory Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Francis Menard Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Aloysius Larvie Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Chester Blue Horse Sioux (Rosebud) Luzon 

Floyd J. Moore Sioux (Rosebud) Luzon 

Louis G. LaPlant Sioux (Rosebud) German/ 

Calvin Larvie Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Felix Knife Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Joseph Wain Sioux (Rosebud) German/ 

Titus White Lance Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

Leonard L. Cordry Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Nelson B. Cordry Sioux (Rosebud) Germany 

Jonas J. Swift Sioux (Rosebud) Italy 

William K. Haukaos Sioux (Rosebud) Okinawa 

Roger Chasing Horse Sioux (Rosebud) 

Kenneth M. Ellston Sioux (Rosebud) German/ 

Philip Good Buffalo Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Ben Marshall Sioux (Pine Ridge) France 

Wilbert Means Sioux (Pine Ridge) Pacific 

Seth Irving Sioux (Pine Ridge) Pacific 

Huron Red Dog Sioux (Pine Ridge) Okinawa 

Albert Returns From ScoutSioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Delmar Richard Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Clement Salway Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Edison Richard Sioux (Pine Ridge) Germany 

Leland L, Standing Sioux (Yankton) 

Henry W. Hare Sioux (Yankton) Germany 

Robert Arpan Sioux (Yankton) Corregidor 

Rudolph Arpan Sioux (Yankton) Corregidor 

Smith Jandreau Sioux (Yankton) Germany 

Eli D. Hope Sioux (Yankton) Italy 

Louis Weston Sioux [Yankton) Germany 

Ulysses J. Little Elk Sioux (Yankton) Luzon 

Bosil Heth Sioux (Yankton) Europe 

Clarence Packard Sioux (Yankton) Belgium 

Joseph Cournoyer Sioux (Yankton) Germany 
UTAH 

Sammy Arrats Ute Tarawa 

Richard Burson Ute IwoJima 

Alfred Parriette Ute Pacific 

Harvey Natchees Ute Belgium 

Henry Drye Poiute Italy 
WASHINGTON 

James Wilson Swinamish New Guinea 

Horoid Jackson Clallam 

James R. Alexander Lummi France 

40 



M d A G 


Lummi 


Germany 


benjamin W . r~lii'G*re 


Lumm: 


Germany 


Anthony Jefferson 




France 


Dert rl , Jetterson 


Lurrrni 


Philippines 


Forrest L. Kinley 


Lurnmi 


EuroDe' neS 


Charles Owens 






Eernord Bumgorner 


O "elt 
f> U 


Eurooe 


Williom Hicks 




E rooe 


Emanuel S. Alfred 


S " G 'mish 


Pacific 


Aloysius Beimont 


Suajcnish 


Europe 


Le-onord Lowrence 


Suq^omish 






SuQUfi misH 


France 


Steven E. Williams 


Tulaiip 


Philippines 


Roy Smith 


Mokah 




Frank H. Smith 


Makoh 


Europe 


Antonio Rogers 


CheKoliS 


Germany 




W.'SC0!\'S1N, 




_ . _ 








Oneida 


Belgium 


j eon . u^i^ » 






F t \\t H 

OS mc ' n , 


Oneido 


Leyte 


trnest bkenonaore 


Oneida 


Be'aium 


Aaron L. mit 


Oneido 


* 


S9 S erson wam P 






Q ne | j° 


a y 




One da 


(J HDD 
Kaymon eer 


Winnebago 






V/ i n r>e DQQO 




A dr- 6 Thundercloud 


^Vinnebogo 


Pacific 
* 


M White robbit 


Winnebago 




urray ^hiek 


^Vinnebogo 




Ch 1 B 




E 

urope 


c ° r i, e n 5 au ' : ' r ^ 


Mt-'-m!nee 


urope 




--n-inee 




G TV" ( UC1Uain 


Mt'i-m''nee 


^urope 


M* 5 Neosh 


We ncm * nee 


Europe 


LI d G thier 


M en c m i n ee 


Eu nnp 


! h fVK hprum 




E nn 


i " U\ 'p' 
Josep . ecore 




P " 
urope 




M^-minee 




J n h S° W, th 


M -i -mi nee 


^ " 




Mencminee 




Ed' C d Tucker 1 " 3 " 


We nominee 


Eurooe 


R H' t W ton 
benedict arnng 


Menominee 


p " 
urope 


(filbert aupoose 


e nominee 


urope 








LJoy^Tourtillo't ° S6e 


Mencminee 


Philippines 


Peter A. Tucker 


MtTicrn inee 


Phil ippines 


Earl J. Pecore 


Menominee 


Pacific 


George Tomow 


Menominee 


Pacific 


Dove Wheelock 


Mencminee 


Pacific 




WYOMING 




Ralph W. Plume 




r 




A ro pa hoe 


Europe- 


Frank A. Aragon 


Arc pc hoe 


Pacific 


Robert Bed 


Aropohoe 


Europe 


Joseph S. Rhodes 


Arapahoe 


Europe 


Donald O'Neal 


Arapahoe 


Guam 


Cyrus Roberts 


Shoshone 


Italy 



41 



INDIANS WORK FOR THE NAVY 



By LT. FREDERICK 

The story of the American Indian and his 
efforts in this second great world struggle is 
not limited to the exploits of soldiers. Men 
and women too old or too young for service 
with the armed forces have volunteered for 
work in the war industries as well as in food 
production. This report on one of the U. S. 
Navy's greatest land-based activities illustrates 
tk>e intense desire of the Indian people to serve 
where they are directh/ connected with the 
work of the war. The Naval Supply Depot at 
Clearfield, Utah, has as its aim and purpose 
general service to the fleet. It sends out a 
lifeline of supplies, pouring the essentials of 
successful worfare in an endless stream to the 
far points of the Pacific theatre. 

The Depot wos established in the Spring of 
1943, to start the flow of vita! materials to 
the Navy. At this time, down in the Rio 
Grande Valley of New Mexico, Indians were 
leaving home for military service. Ten per 
cent of the Pueblo Indians had gone into uni- 
form. In the neighboring cities and the local 
communities help was urgently needed. The 
older men of the Pueblos, recognizing the 
emergency, decided to put an advertisement 
in the local papers offering their services for 
part-time work in the neighboring area. Soon 
trucks came pouring into the villages to pick 
up working parties, some even arriving from 
Colorado. When word of this project reached 
the offices of the Civil Service Commission in 
Denver, they sent a representative to Santo 
Domingo Pueblo to confer with John Bird, an 
Indian leader of political and social affairs. 

John Bird was told about the new Naval De- 
pot at Clearfield. The Civil Service under- 
stood that the Pueblo people wanted to help 
win the war; here at Clearfield was a place 
where men were needed, a place contributing 
directly to our successes in the Pacific. It 
was agreed that Pueblo men, if they went to 
work at Clearfield, would be allowed to go 
home during the summer months to plant and 
harvest their crops. 



W. SLEIGHT, USNR 

At the meeting called by John Bird, the 
Pueblos agreed thot this was work which they 
wanted to do. The farm agent was convinced 
that if they came back and farmed in the sum- 
mer months, the move to Utah for the rest of 
the year would be good. The task of recruit- 
ing men from all the Pueblos was given to 
John Bird, and he travelled from Toos on the 
north to Isleta on the south. Santo Clara, 
Jemez, and Santo Domingo gave the greatest 
number of workers. Sixty-two men came from 
Jemez alone. When they were examined and 
passed as physically fit by Indian Service doc- 
tors, they were ready to leave. About 150 
men made up the first battalion that set out 
for Clearfield. The first contingent of work- 
hungry Pueblos, travelling in coaches reserved 
for them, arrived at the Navy Depot in De- 
cember 1943. 

Work assigned to the Indians has been 
varied. John Bird, who travelled with his peo- 
ple to Clearfield, has advanced to a supervis- 
ory position. He, like mony of his men, has 
worked on the swing shift. Some of the men 
have been placed in the transportation divi- 
sion, and others have handled and loaded sup- 
plies destined for the ships at sea. Oscar 
Carlson, labor foreman at the Depot, says 
that the Indians — Shoshones, Apaches, Sioux, 
Navajos, Utes, as well as Pueblos — ore out- 
standing workers. They understand Instruc- 
tions well. They are not shirkers on the job. 
He says, "I have never had an Indian in my 
office for disciplinary action." 

The great problem of production, absentee- 
ism, is unknown among the Indian population 
of the Depot. Indians are constantly on the 
job. Indian participation in the War Bond 
campaigns has been 100 per cent — another 
indication that the Indians are whole-hearted 
in their devotion to the cause for which their 
sons have fought. 

For two springs the Pueblo people hove gone 
back to their farms, but, the growing season 
over, they have returned, often bringing with 



Ind'ans unload Oregon timber at the Naval Supply Depot. Official U. S. Navy Photo 



them new recruits to help with the big job. 
Mr. Carlson states that nearly all of the men 
return after a summer of farming, and that 
they all seem happy to come back. Futher testi- 
mony comes in a report from the Security De- 
partment. This office, which handles ofl the 
policing of the area, has no record in the files 
any trouble initiated by the Indians. 

From all quarters of the Depot have come 
similar reports. On the 10th of April, 1945, 
Rear Admiral Arthur H. Mayo, speaking at 
the ceremonies commemorating the second 
anniversary of the Depot's commissioning, 
said: "It is encouraging to know that many 
Pueblo Indians. . . . have travelled north to 
the State of Utah in order to 'man the battle 
stations' at the Navy Supply Depot at Clear- 
field. I know that these fine people are doing 
a splendid job." 

High credit should go to the Indian for an 
outstanding part in our victory. He has sacri- 
ficed more than most men who ore doing this 
work. He has left the land he has known all 
his life and has had to travel to strange places 
where people often do not understand him and 
his way of living. In most cases he has left 



his family behind. He has had to forego at- 
tending the dances and other religious cere- 
monies that are so much a part of his life. He 
has had to work under foremen and supervis- 
ors, in a woy that is new to him. It is an ad- 
justment more difficult for him than for the 
white man who has known these conditions 
before. 

For all these reasons, the Indian should re- 
ceive the highest praise. In his quiet way he 
has shown that he too has a stake in this con- 
flict, and by his personal qualities he has made 
himself liked by everyone. To men like John 
Bird should go a special tribute. He helped in- 
terpret these modern problems to his people. 
When his brother Ted was killed in action in 
Germany last April, he flew home to comfort 
his mother and father. He has three other 
brothers in the armed forces overseas. 

Like all Americans, these people look for- 
ward to the day when the soldiers will come 
home to a peaceful world. But these Indians 
have learned new skills ond have acquired a 
new confidence in their own competence which 
should be very useful in the tasks of peace. 



TO THE INDIAN VETERAN 



The Congress and the state legislatures have 
passed many laws providing various benefits 
for all veterans except those who have been 
dishonorably discharged from the armed serv- 
ices. Many of you know what these benefits 
ore; but when you come home you will find at 
the agency someone who can tel! you just how 
to apply for the benefits which you want, and 
what you must do to qualify. There is no dis- 
tinction made between Indians and any other 
veterans. Every organization serving the veter- 
an will serve you. Your Selective Service Board, 
to which you report within ten days after your 
return home, will have a counsellor to advise 
you; and the State agencies, the Red Cross, and 
other groups will provide information and coun- 
sel. The Indian Service will make every effort 
to direct you to the proper authority as quickly 
os possible. 

If the first thing in your mind is employment, 
you probably know that you are entitled to get 
your old job back, or one with equal pay and 
standing, provided that you have completed 
your military service satisfactorily, that you are 
still abie to do the job, that you apply for re- 



instatement within 90 days of your discharge, 
and that your employer will not suffer undue 
hardship by taking you back. Once you are on 
the job, you may not be dismissed without 
cause for the period of one year. This is true 
for Civil Service employees and for those in 
private industry. If you didn't have a job when 
you went into the military service, or if you 
don't want to go bock to the job you left, you 
should apply to the nearest office of the U. S. 
Employment Service, or, if you wont a Federol 
job, to the Civil Service Commission. You are 
entitled to preference for jobs in the Indian 
Service, both as an Indian and as a veteran, 
but you must of course qualify by troining or 
by examination. 

If you want to continue your education, there 
are many opportunities. Under the G. I. Bill of 
Rights (Public Law 346, 78th Congress}, you are 
entitled to one year of school or college, if you 
have served at least 90 days, not counting the 
time spent in Army or Navy special training 
courses. You may choose the course you prefer, 
at any elementary school, high school, college, 
or vocational troining institute on the list 




approved by the Veterans' Administration, but 
you must be accepted as qualified by the school 
you select. A number of Indian Service schools 
have already been added to the approved list, 
and o number of special courses have been 
planned for returning servicemen. 

If you are under 25, or if you con show that 
your education was interrupted when you went 
into military service, you may continue your 
education beyond this first year. For each 
month you spent in active service after Sep- 
tember 16, 1940, and before the end of the 
war, you may have an additional month of 
schooling, but the total time cannot be more 
than four years. While you are studying under 
this program, the Veterans' Administration will 
allow you $50 a month for living expenses and 
will pay your tuition and other fees, including 
the cost of books, supplies, and equipment, up 
to S500 per year. If you have dependents, the 
subsistence allowance will be increased to $75 
per month. If you receive payment for work 
done in connection with your study program, 
your allowance may be decreased, and if >'0u 
take only a part-time course, you will not re- 
ceive the full monthly benefit. 

Commercial courses, courses in agriculture 
and stockraising, sheetmercl work, plumbing, 
drafting, automotive mechanics, carpentry, 
baking, cooking, machine shop work, masonry, 
painting and decoration, power plant operation, 



printing and binding, and many others, will be 
offered at eight or more Indian schools: Albu- 
querque Boarding School, Carson, Chemawa, 
Chilocco, Flandreau, Wingate, Haskell Insti- 
tute, and Sherman. Not all of the courses will 
be available ot each school, and other courses 
will be odded from time to time. These courses 
will be available to non-lndions, if there is room 
enough, and the Indian veteran is not limited to 
a choice of Indian schools. You may take any 
course for which you can qualify, at any ap- 
proved school. 

If you have o disability resulting from your 
military service, the educational program of- 
fered under Public Law 16, 78th Congress, 
may be more helpful to you. Under this legisla- 
tion, a disabled veteran may be allowed up to 
four years of vocational training, during which 
time he may receive a total pension of not less 
than $92 per month. If he has dependents, the 
□ liowance is larger. 

The G. I Bill olso provides readjustment al- 
lowances for veterans who are unable to find 
work. Any unemployed veteran who has served 
90 days or more and has been released with- 
out dishonorable discharge, or has been dis- 
abled in the line of duty, may receive a week- 
ly readjustment allowance of $20, less any 
part-time wages he may receive in excess of 
$3. To be eligible for this allowance, the vet- 
eran must report regularly to a public employ- 



ment office; and if he fails to accept any suit- 
able job offered to him, he is disqualified. He 
may also be disqualified if he does not attend 
a free training course available to him, or if 
he has left suitable work, or is discharged for 
misconduct. The readjustment allowance may 
be continued for 24 weeks, plus four weeks for 
each month of active service, up to a maximum 
of 52 weeks. If he is self-employed and \\e can 
show that his net earnings have been less than 
$100 in the month preceding the date of his 
application, he is entitled to receive an amount 
large enough to bring his earnings up to $100 
for the month. Benefits under this legislation 
may not be claimed when five years have 
passed after the end of the war, and claims 
must be made within two years after the veter- 
an's discharge from the military service or with- 
in two years after the end of the war, whichev- 
er date is later. 

Veterans may have free hospital care, medi- 
cal and dental services, through the Veterans' 
Administration, for any disabilities incurred in 
the line of duty in the service or aggravated 
because of such service. 

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 
1944 — commonly called the G. I. Bill of 
Rights — also provides for certain benefits for 
veterans who want to borrow money to buy or 
build a home, to purchase a farm, farm equip- 
ment or livestock, or to acquire business proper- 
ty. The Federal Government will not make loans 
or extend any credit under this program. It 
says simply that if you can get a loan for these 
purposes from any lending agency, either pub- 
lic or private, such os a bank, corporation, or 
individual, the Veterans' Administration, on 
approving the loan, will guarantee one-half of 
the amount, up to $2000. The Administrator 
will olso pay the first year's interest on the 
amount which he guarantees. This interest 
need not be repaid. The loan itself must be 
repaid according to the conditions under which 
it is made. 

The lending agency to which you apply for 
a loan should be one of those serving your 
community. This organization should under- 
stand that you may receive a loan on the same 



basis as other veterans, even though you may 
conduct your operations on trust land belong- 
ing to you or on tribal lands operated under an 
assignment. It should be possible for you to 
get a loan without any security other than a 
mortgage on the property you ore buying with 
the money loaned to you; but if other security 
is required, the Superintendent may approve a 
lien on trust property, other than land, as col- 
lateral. Trust land may not be given as secur- 
ity for these loans. 

It should also be understood that the Super- 
intendent may authorize a creditor to enter 
on the reservation to repossess equipment 
bought with borrowed money, if the loan should 
be in default. 

If you want to qualify for a farm loan, you 
must show that you have had farming experi- 
ence. If your loan is for the purchase of live- 
stock, you must show that you have adequate 
range on which to run it. If you plan to buy 
farm machinery, you will have to show that 
you hove land upon which the machinery will be 
used, and you must also describe your plan of 
operation and demonstrate that it will produce 
income enough to repay the loan. 

In general, no restrictions will be placed up- 
on property obtained under loans guaranteed 
under the Act, except those which the lending 
agency may require in order to protect the loan. 

You should remember, too, that you have 
other wcys to obtain a loan, if you are not eli- 
gible under the G. I. The Indian Service 
may be able to atrc-.^- a ' oan f rom revolving 
credit funds; or your tribe may offer to lend 
you what you need. There are many avenues 
to explore 

From time to time, Congress may make 
changes in the provisions of the G. I. Bill and 
other servicemen's legislation. Allowances for 
the unemployed veteran and for the veteran 
attending school may be increased. You are 
urged to take advantage of the program which 
you feel will be most useful to you. Get all the 
information available, consult with everyone 
who can be of help to you, and make full use 
of the opportunities which you have earned by 
your service to your country. 



46 



The Marine Corps band plays the national anthem as tha flag i> raised at the dedication of Roy Enouf Field, Klamath Aaenty, 
Oregon. Tha airfield li named In honor of the only Klamath Indian to lose his life In World War II, a Marine private first elan, 
who was killed while acting as first-aid man in the front lines on Iwo Jima. Coromonies dedicating the field took place on 
September 27, 1945. 



47 




48 



INDIAN WOMEN WORK FOR VICTORY 



Indian women, anxious to help out during 
the war-created manpower shortage, have 
made an astonishingly large contribution to 
their country's needs. Thousands of them have 
left their homes to work in factories, on 
ranches ond farms, and even as section-hands, 
to replace men who were vitally needed else- 
where. They hove joined the nurses' corps, the 
military auxiliaries, the Red Cross, and the 
American Women's Voluntary Service. 

Not content with this, they have given their 
services in many other and more unusual ways. 
More than 500 Eskimo and Indian women and 
girls worked day and night manufacturing 
skin clothing, mittens, mukluks, moccasins, 
snawshoes, and other articles of wearing ap- 
parel for our forces serving in cold weather or 
at high altitudes. An Alaskan Indian woman 
ran a trap line to make money for war bonds. 

Cherokee girls wove and sold baskets, buying 
war stamps with the money. On the Eastern 
Cherokee reservation, women and girls planted 
and harvested the crops, and even drove trac- 
tors. 

Forty Chippewa women formed a rifle bri- 
gade for home defense. An old Kiowa woman 
gave $1,000 to the Navy Relief Fund as her 
contribution. Osage women, draped in their 
brilliant blankets, spent long hours at sewing 
machines for the Red Cross. 

In the West, a Pueblo woman drove a truck 
between Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mex- 
ico, delivering milk to the Indian school. She 
not only serviced her own truck but also help- 

Cpl. Anna Reeveoi, WAC Ensign Coro Bru 



ed at the school garage as o mechanic. Many 
Indian women became silversmiths, and made 
insignia for the armed forces. At Fort Wingate, 
New Mexico, the Navajo women's work rang- 
ed from that of chemists to truck drivers. Two 
Indian women in California served at a lonely 
observation post, driving the twelve miles to 
their position in a rickety old automobile. 

The war plants had many Indian women 
on their rolls, working as riveters, inspectors, 
sheet metal workers, and machinists. An Indian 
girl was chosen at one plant to receive the 
Army-Navy E for her fellow-workers. 

In the Indian forests, hitherto considered 
as providing work fit only for men, the Indian 
women learned to take over many tasks. 
Treatment for blister rust was given 80,182 
acres of forest, mainly in the Lake states, and 
Indian women performed much of the labor. 
On the Menominee reservation in Wisconsin, 
fifty women replaced men at the mill. Crews 
consisting of two women and one man planted 
young trees to replace those cut down in the 
Red Lake forest in Minnesota. During the 
short period in the spring which is considered 
most advantageous for such planting, 90,700 
trees were replaced on 238 acres of land. Indian 
women have "manned" fire lookout stations on 
the Colville and Klamath reservations. An In- 
dian woman acted as guard at the Dry Creek 
station on the Yakima forest, ond another 
leorned to be a radio operator at the central 
camp on the Quinaielt reservation. 

er, NC, USNR Celia C. Cook, SK 2-c, WAVES 




PRISONERS OF WAR RELEASED 



Many Indians reported as prisoners of war 
have now been released and have come home 
again. Lt. Frank Paisano, Jr., a prisoner of the 
Germans, has returned to Laguna Pueblo. Dur- 
ing his absence he was awarded the Air Medal, 
which his wife accepted in his name. Omar 
Schoenborn, Chippewa, once reported dead, 
was one of 83 men who escaped death when 
the prison ship carrying them to Japan was 
sunk off Leyte. He managed to swim ashore 
and to hide from the Japanese until the arrival 
of the American forces. Gilmore C. Daniels, 
Osage, who joined the Royal Canadian Air 



Force early in the war, spent nearly four years 
in a German prison camp before the advancing 
armies released him. Another Osage, Major Ed- 
ward E. Tinker, a nephew of General Clarence 
Tinker, was taken prisoner when he crashed 
in Bulgaria, and was freed by the Russian ad- 
vance. 

Among the American prisoners released by 
the 6th Ranger Battalion from Cabanatuan 
Prison in the Philippines on January 30, 1945, 
was Major Caryl L. Picotte, Sioux-Omaha, for- 
merly of Nebrasko, but now stationed in Oak- 
land, California. 



S-Sat. John Leo Redeogle, fluopow, and his wifo. Sgt. Rcdeagle, 
wearer of the Air Medal, was released from a German prison 
camp after several months of captivity. 



Major Pieotte was called to active duty with 
the Air Corps in September, 1941, and sent to 
the Philippines. On his arrivol in Manila he wos 
assigned to duty as Associate Engineering Of- 
ficer at the Philippine Air Depot, Nichols Field. 

After the Japanese air attack on Nichols 
Field, December 8, 1941, when most of the 
serviceable American aircraft were destroyed. 
Major Pieotte assisted in the organization of a 
provisional Air Corps regiment which fought as 
infantry from January 1, 1942, until the capi- 
tulation of Bataan on April 9th of that year. 
He was in the famous Death March from Ba- 
taan to the first American prisoner-of-war 
camp at O'Donnell, covering 80 miles in three 
days with one meal of rice. In June he was 
moved to Cabanatuan, where he remained un- 
til released by the Rangers two and a half years 
later. During the last days before the fall of 
Bataan, he was recommended for the Distin- 
guished Service Cross and the Silver Star. 

Major Pieotte comes of a distinguished In- 
dian family. His grandfather was Joseph La- 
Flesche (Iron Eyes), the last chief of the Omaha 
tribe. His mother, Susan LaFlesche Pieotte, 
was the first Indian woman physician and is 
remembered with veneration for her life of un- 
selfish service to both Indians and Whites. The 
late Francis LaFlesche, distinguished ethnolo- 
gist, was his uncle, and Suzette LaFlesche Tib- 
bies, (Bright Eyes), who lectured throughout 




the civilized world and was the most famous 
Indian woman of the 1880's and 1 890's, was 
his aunt. 

Major Pieotte reported that there were more 
than 300 Indions on Botaan and Corregidor. 
While in the prison camps he met and talked 
with many from all sections of the country. He 
added, "Their battle record, individually and 
as a whole, left nothing to be desired." 

Not all the news of the prisoners of war is 
good. Some did not survive the rigors and the 
mistreatment in the camps, and some were 
lost in the torpedoing of several ships carrying 
prisoners of war from the Philippines to Japan. 
Others perished when another ship wos bombed 
and sunk in Subic Bay. It is hoped that, as 
time goes on, more will be found alive and 
that the lists of released prisoners will grow. 



51 



A FAMILY OF BRAVES 



Six grandsons of the Reverend Ben Brave, 
retired Sioux minister, have shown their patrio- 
tism by donning uniforms. Four went into the 
Army, one into the Navy, ond one into the 
Coast Guard. 

Staff Sgt. Francis E. Brave received the Silver 
Star for gallantry in action, evacuating 30 Ger- 
man prisoners to the rear under enemy fire on 
Anzio beachhead. "During the two hours re- 
quired for the trip," to quote the citation, "Ser- 
geant Brave had to wade through waist-deep 
water and frequently had to take cover from 
enemy tank and mortar shells; however, he 
controlled his prisoners and brought them to 
the proper collecting poinr. Sergeant Brave's 
gallant conduct made possible the early gath- 
ering of important information from the pris- 
oners ond reflects much credit on the Army of 
the United States." 

Staff Sgt. Waldron A. Frazier, also o grand- 
son of the Reverend Brave, served with the 
Second Troop Carrier Squadron for four years, 
during two of which he was stationed succes- 
sively in China, India, and Burma. As crew 
chief of the "Thunderbird," one of the big 
transport planes, he had more than 125 hours 
of combat flying time, and he wore the Air 
Medal, the Pacific Theater Ribbon with two 



battle stars, and the American Defense Rib- 
bon. His group won two Presidential Unit ci- 
tations. Last December he was killed in a 
plane crash while being invalided home. 

Nearly four hundred of "The Chief's" 
friends decided to do something in his mem- 
ory. Accordingly, they bought for his little 
girl, Nona Joyce, $1,025 worth of War Bonds, 
ond sent a check for the $14.45 left over from 
the purchases. Among the donors were all 
ranks from majors to privates. "We hope that 
this little gift will help to give Nona Joyce some 
of the things that Waldron would like her to 
have," they wrote. 

The other four grandsons ore doing well, and 
no doubt we shall hear brave stories of them. 
They are: Cpl. Alexander A. Brave, Sgt. Jud- 
son B. Brave, and Ronald H. and Donold H. 
Frazier, twins, who are in the Coast Guard and 
the Navy, respectively. 

The Reverend Brave's son, Ben, was recently 
discharged from the Army for overage. A 
son-in-law, Lt. Frank Fox, is in the Army, and 
another grandson, John W. Frazier, Jr., has 
recently donned the uniform. Two grandsons- 
in-law, James Wilson and Russell DeCora, com- 
plete the family fighting group. 




INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEES IN THE WAR 



Twenty-one employees of the Indian Service 
gave their lives for the cause of freedom and 
justice, some of them in action against the 
enemy, some in training, some by accident, and 
some by illness. There will be more names to 
odd to the list when the reckoning is com- 
pleted. Captain Homer Claymore, pilot of a 
B-17 bomber in the 8th Air Force, has been 
missing for many months and must be pre- 
sumed lost. He was employed as a baker at 
Pine Ridge before he entered the AAF. Lt. 
Orian Wynn, of the Consolidated Ute Agency, 
wos reported missing after a raid on enemy 
territory from his base in Italy. 



The prisoners of war released by the vic- 
torious armies of the United Nations include 
Soldier Sanders, baker at the Sequoyah School, 
Wallace Tyner, clerk at Jicarilla, and Marion 
Chadacloi, assistant at Navajo. They were all 
prisoners of the Germans. Cornelius Gregory, 
teacher at Fort Sill, spent eleven months in- 
terned in Sweden, following a raid on Germany 
during which his plane was damaged and had 
to land in neutral territory. Mrs. Etta S. Jones, 
teacher, who was captured when the Japanese 
invaded the island of Attu in June 1942, was 
found in a comp near Tokyo and brought back 
to the United States. Her husband, who was a 



53 



special assistant and operated the radio station 
on the island, was killed at the time of the in- 
vasion. Dr. Sidney E. Seid, formerly physician 
at the Chilocco School, survived more than 
three years' imprisonment in Japan. 

Still to be heard from are Louis E. Williams, 
clerk at Pine Ridge, and Roy J. House, cleik at 
Jicarilla, who were made prisoners by the Jap- 
anese during the first campaigns in the Philip- 
pines. 

Indian Service employees have won decora- 
tions for gallantry and courage. Lt. William 
Sixkiller, Jr., who died of wounds received in 
action on Saipan, received the posthumous 
award of the Silver Star. Another Indian Office 
employee, Sgt. Robert Duffin, wears the same 
decora-tion, awarded for exploits in Germany, 
and Philip Kowice, of the United Pueblos Agen- 
cy, earned his Silver Star in the Italian cam- 
paign. Bronze Star Medals were awarded to 
Lt. James M. Ware, of the Osage Agency, who 
directed evacuation of the wounded in an Ital- 



ian engagement, although seriously wounded 
himself; to Colonel E. Morgan Pryse, Director 
of Roads, for the construction of airfields in 
advance combat sectors; and to Major Delmer 
F. Parker, Physician at the Pawnee Agency, for 
his work as surgeon in the Pacific theatre. Capt. 
Louis J. Feves, furloughed from his position as 
physician at the Umatilla Agency, Oregon, won 
the Soldier's Medal when he went to the rescue 
of injured crew members of a bomber which 
had crashed on a heavily-mined reef in the 
Gilbert Islands. 

The list of those wounded in action includes 
Henry McEwin (Engineer, Chilocco School), 
Walter W. Nations (Agricultural Extension 
Agent, United Pueblos), Nelson Thompson 
(Assistant, Navajo), Walter Campbell (Barber, 
Sherman Institute), Franklin Gritts (Teacher, 
Haskell Institute), Michael Bordeaux (Clerk, 
Rosebud), James M. Ware (Clerk, Osage), 
Henry Garcia (Orderly, Navojo), and Morris 
James (Mechanic, Pine Ridge). 



Joe Singer 
C. Foster Jones 
Percy Archdale 
Irwin G. Price 
Alfred Begoy 
Cruz McDaniels 
Richard Monte Strong 
William Sixkiller, Jr. 
Harold A. Wood 
Esther F. Henry 
Susan Motylewski 
James F. Klock 
Winfield Robinson 
Velma Miller 
Allen E. Lovine 
Joe Gonzales 
Ted Bird 
Vicenti Mirabal 
William Silos Coons 
Fred James 
Wilson Tso 



IN MEMORIAM 



Assistant, Navajo Agency 

Assistant, Alaska Service 

Clerk, Truxton Canyon Agency 

Forest Ranger, Fort Apache Agency 

Farmer, Navajo Agency 

Clerk, Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency 

Engineering Aide, United Pueblos Agency 

Clerk, Chicago Office 

Engineer, United Pueblos Agency 

Field Nurse, Osage Agency 

Teacher, Navajo Agency 

Physician, Consolidated Chippewa Agency 

Forester, Colville Agency 

Nurse, Navajo Agency 

Boys' Adviser, Corson Agency 

Pump Operator, Sells Agency 

Truck Driver, United Pueblos Agency 

Teacher, United Pueblos Agency 

Farm Agent, Shawnee Agency 

Bus Driver, Pima Agency 

General Mechanic, Navajo Agency 



May 10, 1942 
June 8, 1942 
February 7, 1943 
November 23, 1943 
October 26, 1943 
May 18, 1944 
June 1, 1944 
July 13, 1944 
July 17, 1944 
August 18, 1944 
October 29, 1944 
December 12, 1944 
December 15, 1944 
December 19, 1944 
March 27, 1945 
March 31, 1945 
April 1, 1945 
April 7, 1945 
April 14, 1945 
May 7, 1945 
May 13, 1945 



FONDREN UBRARy 

tothm mmu Mmm, 

W-US. TEXAS «2sT